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  • Joussen, Sylvia  (23)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e37839
    Description: The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (〈35 years) as compared to older donors (〉45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Biotechnology ; Physiology ; Hematology ; Developmental Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(2), p.e16679
    Description: Epigenetic modifications of cytosine residues in the DNA play a critical role for cellular differentiation and potentially also for aging. In mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from human bone marrow we have previously demonstrated age-associated methylation changes at specific CpG-sites of developmental genes. In continuation of this work, we have now isolated human dermal fibroblasts from young (〈23 years) and elderly donors (〉60 years) for comparison of their DNA methylation profiles using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 assay. In contrast to MSC, fibroblasts could not be induced towards adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage and this is reflected by highly significant differences between the two cell types: 766 CpG sites were hyper-methylated and 752 CpG sites were hypo-methylated in fibroblasts in comparison to MSC. Strikingly, global DNA methylation profiles of fibroblasts from the same dermal region clustered closely together indicating that fibroblasts maintain positional memory even after in vitro culture. 75 CpG sites were more than 15% differentially methylated in fibroblasts upon aging. Very high hyper-methylation was observed in the aged group within the INK4A/ARF/INK4b locus and this was validated by pyrosequencing. Age-associated DNA methylation changes were related in fibroblasts and MSC but they were often regulated in opposite directions between the two cell types. In contrast, long-term culture associated changes were very consistent in fibroblasts and MSC. Epigenetic modifications at specific CpG sites support the notion that aging represents a coordinated developmental mechanism that seems to be regulated in a cell type specific manner.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Genetics And Genomics ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Molecular Biology ; Cell Biology ; Developmental Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLOS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(4), pp.urn:issn:1932-6203
    Description: Several applications in tissue engineering require transplantation of cells embedded in appropriate biomaterial scaffolds. Such structures may consist of 3D non-woven fibrous materials whereas little is known about the impact of mesh size, pore architecture and fibre morphology on cellular behavior. In this study, we have developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) non-woven scaffolds with round, trilobal, or snowflake fibre cross section and different fibre crimp patterns (10, 16, or 28 needles per inch). Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue were seeded in parallel on these scaffolds and their growth was compared. Initial cell adhesion during the seeding procedure was higher on non-wovens with round fibres than on those with snowflake or trilobal cross sections. All PVDF non-woven fabrics facilitated cell growth over a time course of 15 days. Interestingly, proliferation was significantly higher on non-wovens with round or trilobal fibres as compared to those with snowflake profile. Furthermore, proliferation increased in a wider, less dense network. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the MSCs aligned along the fibres and formed cellular layers spanning over the pores. 3D PVDF non-woven scaffolds support growth of MSCs, however fibre morphology and mesh size are relevant: proliferation is enhanced by round fibre cross sections and in rather wide-meshed scaffolds.
    Keywords: Tissue Engineering – Analysis ; Adipose Tissue – Health Aspects;
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLOS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(10), pp.urn:issn:1932-6203
    Description: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-[beta]1) stimulates a broad range of effects which are cell type dependent, and it has been suggested to induce cellular senescence. On the other hand, long-term culture of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has a major impact on their cellular physiology and therefore it is well conceivable that the molecular events triggered by TGF-[beta]1 differ considerably in cells of early and late passages. In this study, we analyzed the effect of TGF-[beta]1 on and during replicative senescence of MSCs. Stimulation with TGF-[beta]1 enhanced proliferation, induced a network like growth pattern and impaired adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. TGF-[beta]1 did not induce premature senescence. However, due to increased proliferation rates the cells reached replicative senescence earlier than untreated controls. This was also evident, when we analyzed senescence-associated DNA-methylation changes. Gene expression profiles of MSCs differed considerably at relatively early (P 3 - 5) and later passages (P 10). Nonetheless, relative gene expression differences provoked by TGF-[beta]1 at individual time points or in a time course dependent manner (stimulation for 0, 1, 4 and 12 h) were very similar in MSCs of early and late passage. These results support the notion that TGF-[beta]1 has major impact on MSC function, but it does not induce senescence and has similar molecular effects during culture expansion.
    Keywords: Methylation -- Analysis ; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins -- Analysis ; Stem Cells -- Analysis ; Genes -- Analysis ; Transforming Growth Factors -- Analysis ; Gene Expression -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Biomaterials, August 2015, Vol.61, pp.316-326
    Description: Surface topography impacts on cell growth and differentiation, but it is not trivial to generate defined surface structures and to assess the relevance of specific topographic parameters. In this study, we have systematically compared differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on a variety of groove/ridge structures. Micro- and nano-patterns were generated in polyimide using reactive ion etching or multi beam laser interference, respectively. These structures affected cell spreading and orientation of human MSCs, which was also reflected in focal adhesions morphology and size. Time-lapse demonstrated directed migration parallel to the nano-patterns. Overall, surface patterns clearly enhanced differentiation of MSCs towards specific lineages: 15 μm ridges increased adipogenic differentiation whereas 2 μm ridges enhanced osteogenic differentiation. Notably, nano-patterns with a periodicity of 650 nm increased differentiation towards both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. However, in absence of differentiation media surface structures did neither induce differentiation, nor lineage-specific gene expression changes. Furthermore, nanostructures did not affect the YAP/TAZ complex, which is activated by substrate stiffness. Our results provide further insight into how structuring of tailored biomaterials and implant interfaces – e.g. by multi beam laser interference in sub-micrometer scale – do not induce differentiation of MSCs , but support their directed differentiation.
    Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells ; Microstructure ; Nanotopography ; Laser Ablation ; Gene Expression ; Osteogenesis ; Medicine ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0142-9612
    E-ISSN: 1878-5905
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biomaterials, August 2014, Vol.35(24), pp.6351-6358
    Description: Matrix elasticity guides differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) but it is unclear if these effects are only transient – while the cells reside on the substrate – or if they reflect persistent lineage commitment. In this study, MSCs were continuously culture-expanded in parallel either on tissue culture plastic (TCP) or on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gels of different elasticity to compare impact on replicative senescence, differentiation, gene expression, and DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles. The maximal number of cumulative population doublings was not affected by matrix elasticity. Differentiation towards adipogenic and osteogenic lineage was increased on soft and rigid biomaterials, respectively – but this propensity was no more evident if cells were transferred to TCP. Global gene expression profiles and DNAm profiles revealed relatively few differences in MSCs cultured on soft or rigid matrices. Furthermore, only moderate DNAm changes were observed upon culture on very soft hydrogels of human platelet lysate. Our results support the notion that matrix elasticity influences cellular behavior while the cells reside on the substrate, but it does not have major impact on cell-intrinsic lineage determination, replicative senescence or DNAm patterns.
    Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells ; Elasticity ; Long-Term Culture ; Platelet Lysate ; DNA-Methylation ; Epigenetic ; Medicine ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0142-9612
    E-ISSN: 1878-5905
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(5), p.e65324
    Description: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are usually clonally derived. The selection of fully reprogrammed cells generally involves picking of individual colonies with morphology similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Given that fully reprogrammed cells are highly proliferative and escape from cellular senescence, it is conceivable that they outgrow non-pluripotent and partially reprogrammed cells during culture expansion without the need of clonal selection. In this study, we have reprogrammed human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) with episomal plasmid vectors. Colony frequency was higher and size was larger when using murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as stromal support instead of HDFs or human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We have then compared iPSCs which were either clonally derived by manual selection of a single colony, or derived from bulk-cultures of all initial colonies. After few passages their morphology, expression of pluripotency markers, and gene expression profiles did not reveal any significant differences. Furthermore, clonally-derived and bulk-cultured iPSCs revealed similar in vitro differentiation potential towards the three germ layers. Therefore, manual selection of individual colonies does not appear to be necessary for the generation of iPSCs - this is of relevance for standardization and automation of cell culture procedures.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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