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  • Julich, Stefan  (22)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    Description: Phosphorus (P) export from forest soils is mainly driven by storm events, which induce rapid flow processes by preferential flow bypassing large parts of the soil matrix. However, little is known about the dynamics, magnitude, and driving processes of P exports into surface waters. In this paper, we present the results of a monitoring study in a small forested catchment (21 ha) situated in the low mountain ranges of Saxony, Germany. During the fixed schedule-sampling (weekly to bi-weekly sampling frequency for a three-year period), a mean total-P concentration of 8 μg·L−1 was measured. However, concentrations increased up to 203 μg·L−1 during individual storm flow events. Based on the analyzed concentrations and continuously measured discharge we calculated mean annual export rates of 19 to 44 g·ha−1·a−1 for the weekly sampling frequency with different load calculation methods. If events are included into the annual load calculation, the mean annual export fluxes can be up to 83 g·ha−1·a−1 based on the different load calculation methods. Predictions of total-P export rates based on a sampling strategy which does not consider short-term changes due to factors such as storms will substantially underestimate P exports.
    Keywords: Info:Eu-Repo/Classification/Ddc/630 ; Ddc:630 ; Bewaldete Einzugsgebiete ; Phosphorexporte ; Lastberechnungen ; Technische Universität Dresden ; Publikationsfond ; Forested Catchments ; Phosphorus Exports ; Load Calculations ; Technische Universität Dresden ; Publishung Fund
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2017, Vol.180(3), pp.407-417
    Description: Phosphorus (P) is primarily transported in soil through preferential flow pathways (PFP), which can rapidly move water and matter bypassing large portions of the soil. This study investigated the composition of P forms in PFPs and soil matrix in two profiles at a forested hillslope in the Thuringian Forest (Central Germany), in order to evaluate (1) the effect of PFPs on the distribution of P fractions in forest soils, and (2) how hillslope position influences P fractions and other chemical parameters. To characterize water and mass fluxes in the profiles, flow pathways were visualized using dye tracer experiments. Stained and unstained soil material was sampled to assess differences of chemical parameters in the PFPs and soil matrix, and tested for correlations between chemical parameters to determine the factors influencing P fractions in soils. The results revealed significantly higher P contents (total P and most P fractions) in the upslope profile compared to the downslope profile. This accumulation effect in the upper profile was also observed for C, N, Fe, and Mn. The distribution of flow patterns also differed between the two profiles with stronger vertical infiltration into mineral soil and more preferential flow along stones and roots in the upslope profile compared to the downslope profile. However, the observed difference could not be addressed to hillslope effects as both test plots were located in mid‐slope position, but were strongly influenced by spatial heterogeneity (., micro‐relief). Furthermore, no statistically significant accumulation effect of P or other elements in PFPs compared to soil matrix was found. At the test site, the combination of high stone content with low potential for P sorption, and predominance of near‐surface lateral flow, appears to have hampered the development of gradients in chemical parameters between PFPs and soil matrix.
    Keywords: Phosphorus Fractions ; Forest Soil ; Hillslope Processes ; Preferential Flow ; Pfp
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 December 2016, Vol.8(1), p.19
    Description: The transport of nutrients in forest soils predominantly occurs along preferential flow pathways (PFP). This study investigated the composition of phosphorus (P) forms in PFPs and soil matrix in several temperate beech forests with contrasting soil P contents in Germany. The PFPs were visualized using dye tracer experiments. Stained and unstained soil was sampled from three profile cuts per plot and analyzed for P fractions. The results show that labile P concentrations were highest in the O-layer and had the same range of values at all sites (240–320 mg·kg−1), although total P (TP) differed considerably (530–2330 mg·kg−1). The ratio of labile P to TP was significantly lower in the P-rich soil compared to the medium and P-poor soils. By contrast, the ratio of moderately labile P to TP was highest at the P-rich site. The shifts in P fractions with soil depth were generally gradual in the P-rich soil, but more abrupt at the others. The contents of labile and moderately labile P clearly differed in PFPs compared to soil matrix, but not statistically significant. The studied soils are characterized by high stone contents with low potential for P sorption. However, indications were found that labile organically bound P accumulates in PFPs such as biopores.
    Keywords: Phosphorus Fractions ; Forest Soil ; Preferential Flow ; Pfp ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, March 2016, Vol.5, pp.244-260
    Description: Nyangores River watershed, headwater catchment of Mara River basin in Kenya. Climate variability and human activities are the main drivers of change of watershed hydrology. The contribution of climate variability and land use change to change in streamflow of Nyangores River, was investigated. Mann Kendall and sequential Mann Kendall tests were used to investigate the presence and breakpoint of a trend in discharge data (1965–2007) respectively. The Budyko framework was used to separate the respective contribution of drivers to change in discharge. Future response of the watershed to climate change was predicted using the runoff sensitivity equation developed. There was a significant increasing trend in the discharge with a breakpoint in 1977. Land use change was found to be the main driver of change in discharge accounting for 97.5% of the change. Climate variability only caused a net increase of the remaining 2.5% of the change; which was caused by counter impacts on discharge of increase in rainfall (increased discharge by 24%) and increase in potential evapotranspiration (decreased discharge by 21.5%). Climate change was predicted to cause a moderate 16% and 15% increase in streamflow in the next 20 and 50 years respectively. Change in discharge was specifically attributed to deforestation at the headwaters of the watershed.
    Keywords: Climate Variability ; Land Use Change ; Hydrology ; Streamflow ; Water Security ; Budyko Framework ; Geography
    ISSN: 2214-5818
    E-ISSN: 2214-5818
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  • 5
    In: Hydrological Processes, 30 August 2016, Vol.30(18), pp.3139-3155
    Description: Land‐use change is one of the main drivers of watershed hydrology change. The effect of forestry related land‐use changes (e.g. afforestation, deforestation, agroforestry) on water fluxes depends on climate, watershed characteristics and spatial scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was calibrated, validated and used to simulate the impact of agroforestry on the water balance in the Mara River Basin (MRB) in East Africa. Model performance was assessed by Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Kling–Gupta Efficiency (KGE). The NSE (and KGE) values for calibration and validation were: 0.77 (0.88) and 0.74 (0.85) for the Nyangores sub‐watershed, and 0.78 (0.89) and 0.79 (0.63) for the entire MRB. It was found that agroforestry in the watershed would generally reduce surface runoff, mainly because of enhanced infiltration. However, it would also increase evapotranspiration and consequently reduce baseflow and overall water yield, which was attributed to increased water use by trees. Spatial scale was found to have a significant effect on water balance; the impact of agroforestry was higher at the smaller headwater catchment (Nyangores) than for the larger watershed (entire MRB). However, the rate of change in water yield with an increase in area under agroforestry was different for the two and could be attributed to the spatial variability of climate within the MRB. Our results suggest that direct extrapolation of the findings from a small sub‐catchment to a larger watershed may not always be accurate. These findings could guide watershed managers on the level of trade‐offs that might occur between reduced water yields and other benefits (e.g. soil erosion control, improved soil productivity) offered by agroforestry. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Land‐Use ; Agroforestry ; Swat Model ; Hydrology ; Catchment Water Balance
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Water, 01 December 2018, Vol.10(12), p.1862
    Description: Surface soil structure is sensitive to natural and anthropogenic impacts that alter soil hydraulic properties (SHP). These alterations have distinct consequences on the water cycle. In this review, we summarized published findings on the quantitative effects of different agricultural management practices on SHP and the subsequent response of the water balance components. Generally, immediately after tillage, soils show a high abundance of large pores, which are temporally unstable and collapse due to environmental factors like rainfall. Nevertheless, most hydrological modeling studies consider SHP as temporally constant when predicting the flow of water and solutes in the atmosphere-plant-soil system. There have been some developments in mathematical approaches to capture the temporal dynamics of soil pore space. We applied one such pore evolution model to two datasets to evaluate its suitability to predict soil pore space dynamics after disturbance. Lack of knowledge on how dispersion of pore size distribution behaves after tillage may have led to over-estimation of some values predicted by the model. Nevertheless, we found that the model predicted the evolution of soil pore space reasonably well (r2 〉 0.80 in most cases). The limiting factor to efficiently calibrate and apply such modeling tools is not in the theoretical part but rather the lack of adequate soil structural and hydrologic data.
    Keywords: Temporal Dynamics ; Soil Hydraulic Properties ; Soil Structure ; Tillage Effects ; Pore Size Distribution ; Engineering
    E-ISSN: 2073-4441
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 December 2017, Vol.9(1), p.8
    Description: The objective of this study was to analyze patterns, dynamics and processes of land-use/cover changes in the transboundary Mara River Basin in East Africa. We specifically focused on deforestation and expansion of agriculture in the watershed. The intensity analysis approach was used to analyze data from satellite imagery-derived land-use/cover maps. Results indicate that swap change accounted for more than 50% of the overall change, which shows a very dynamic landscape transformation. Transition from closed forest to open forest was found to be a dominant landscape change, as opposed to a random change. Similarly, transition from open forest to small-scale agriculture was also found to be a dominant transition. This suggests a trend (pathway) of deforestation from closed forest to small-scale agriculture, with open forest as a transitional land cover. The observed deforestation may be attributed to continuous encroachment and a series of excisions of the forest reserve. Transition from rangeland to mechanized agriculture was found to be a dominant land-use change, which was attributed to change in land tenure. These findings are crucial for designing strategies and integrated watershed management policies to arrest further deforestation in the forest reserves as well as to sustainably control expansion of agriculture.
    Keywords: Land-Use Change ; Intensity Analysis ; Systematic Transition ; Deforestation ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 February 2016, Vol.264, pp.350-362
    Description: Data scarcity represents a serious limitation to the use of hydrologic models for supporting decision making processes, and may lead to inappropriate measures for integrated water resources management efforts. In particular, the importance of spatially distributed soil information is often overlooked. The forest-dominated Águeda catchment in north-central Portugal is an example of a region with serious soil data availability limitations. The Soil Land Inference Model (SoLIM) approach, combined with information from several soil surveys, was used to create a map of soil properties based upon the effective soil depths of the landscape. The modified soil map provided a better representation of the soil spatial attributes, particularly the distribution of soil water content. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the Águeda catchment with two input data sets differing in the soil data. Although SWAT performed satisfactorily in simulating daily streamflow for both data sets at the outlet, results of our study indicate that the SoLIM derived soil data set provides a better representation of the first peak flow events after the dry period. Additionally, it is shown that the better representation of profile depth can contribute considerably to the understanding of water balance components at the small scale and for the implications for management. This study underlines the importance of spatially distributed soil information in watershed modeling for decision making in the river basin management process.
    Keywords: Digital Soil Mapping ; Soil Variation ; Solim ; Hydrological Modeling ; SWAT ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 June 2017, Vol.8(6), p.206
    Description: Phosphorus (P) export from forest soils is mainly driven by storm events, which induce rapid flow processes by preferential flow bypassing large parts of the soil matrix. However, little is known about the dynamics, magnitude, and driving processes of P exports into surface waters. In this paper, we present the results of a monitoring study in a small forested catchment (21 ha) situated in the low mountain ranges of Saxony, Germany. During the fixed schedule-sampling (weekly to bi-weekly sampling frequency for a three-year period), a mean total-P concentration of 8 μg·L−1 was measured. However, concentrations increased up to 203 μg·L−1 during individual storm flow events. Based on the analyzed concentrations and continuously measured discharge we calculated mean annual export rates of 19 to 44 g·ha−1·a−1 for the weekly sampling frequency with different load calculation methods. If events are included into the annual load calculation, the mean annual export fluxes can be up to 83 g·ha−1·a−1 based on the different load calculation methods. Predictions of total-P export rates based on a sampling strategy which does not consider short-term changes due to factors such as storms will substantially underestimate P exports.
    Keywords: Forested Catchments ; Phosphorus Exports ; Load Calculations ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Description: Land use change and climate variability are the main drivers of watershed hydrological processes. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of land use change and climate variability on hydrology of the Mara River Basin in East Africa. Land use maps generated from satellite images were analyzed using the intensity analysis approach to determine the patterns, dynamics and intensity of land use change. Changes in measured streamflow caused separately by land use change and climate variability were separated using the catchment water-energy budget based approach of Budyko framework. The information on past impact of climate variability on streamflow was used to develop a runoff sensitivity equation which was then used to predict the future impact of climate change on streamflow. Finally, the impact of agroforestry on watershed water balance was predicted using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Deforestation and expansion of agriculture were found to be dominant and intensive land use changes in the watershed. The deforestation was attributed to illegal encroachment and excision of the forest reserve. The deforested land was mainly converted to small scale agriculture particularly in the headwaters of the watershed. There was intensive conversion of rangeland to largescale mechanized agriculture which accelerated with change of land tenure (privatization). The watershed has a very dynamic land use change as depicted by swap change (simultaneous equal loss and gains of a particular land use/cover) which accounted for more than half of the overall change. This implies that reporting only net change in land use (of MRB) underestimates the total land use change. The results show that streamflow of Nyangores River (a headwater tributary of the Mara River) significantly increased over the last 50 years. Land use change (particularly deforestation) contributed 97.5% of change in streamflow while the rest of the change (2.5%) was caused by climate variability. It was predicted that climate change would cause a moderate 15% increase in streamflow in the next 50 years. SWAT model simulations suggested that implementation of agroforestry in the watershed would reduce surface runoff, mainly due expected improvement of soil infiltration. Baseflow and total water yield would also decrease while evapotranspiration would increase. The changes in baseflow (reduction) and evapotranspiration (increase) were attributed to increased water extraction from the soil and groundwater by trees in agroforestry systems. The impact of agroforestry on water balance (surface runoff, baseflow, water yield and evapotranspiration) was proportional to increase in size of the watershed simulated with agroforestry. Modelling results also suggested that climate variability within the watershed has a profound effect on the change of water balance caused by implementation of agroforestry. It is recommended that authorities should pay more attention to land use change as the main driver of change in watershed hydrology of the basin. More effort should be focused on prevention of further deforestation and agroforestry may be considered as a practical management strategy to reverse/reduce degradation on the deforested parts of the watershed currently under intensive cultivation.
    Keywords: 333.91
    Source: The British Library
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