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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, July 2018, Vol.238, pp.140-149
    Description: Soil contamination due to atmospheric deposition of metals originating from smelters is a global environmental problem. A common problem associated with this contamination is the discrimination between anthropic and natural contributions to soil metal concentrations: In this context, we investigated the characteristics of soil contamination in the surrounding area of a world class smelter. We attempted to combine several approaches in order to identify sources of metals in soils and to examine contamination characteristics, such as pollution level, range, and spatial distribution. Soil samples were collected at 100 sites during a field survey and total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn were analyzed. We conducted a multivariate statistical analysis, and also examined the spatial distribution by 1) identifying the horizontal variation of metals according to particular wind directions and distance from the smelter and 2) drawing a distribution map by means of a GIS tool. As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in the soil were found to originate from smelter emissions, and As also originated from other sources such as abandoned mines and waste landfill. Among anthropogenic metals, the horizontal distribution of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn according to the downwind direction and distance from the smelter showed a typical feature of atmospheric deposition (regression model:  =   + αe ). Lithogenic Fe was used as an indicator, and it revealed the continuous input and accumulation of these four elements in the surrounding soils. Our approach was effective in clearly identifying the sources of metals and analyzing their contamination characteristics. We believe this study will provide useful information to future studies on soil pollution by metals around smelters.
    Keywords: Soil Contamination ; Smelter ; Metal ; Gis ; Atmospheric Deposition ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, November 2016, Vol.170, pp.157-166
    Description: Toxic metal pollution of agricultural soils caused by mining activities is a serious environmental problem in many parts of the world. To establish an appropriate remediation strategy to improve soil quality, it is essential to first monitor the metals in the soil to understand their distribution and behavioral characteristics. In this study, the concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in agricultural soil near abandoned gold mine sites in a region of South Korea (Chungyang county) were analyzed. A total of seven abandoned gold mines are located in this area. In November 2014, surface soil samples were collected from 200 locations across agricultural fields in the study site. Pollution sources were investigated using various statistical techniques, including multivariate statistical analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS), and the spatial distribution of metals and metalloids was determined. The results of cluster-, principal component-, and correlation analyses, as well as descriptive statistics, indicates that the metals can be divided into two groups. Cu, Ni, and Zn are derived from natural sources related to the parent materials in which the soil developed, whereas As, Cd, and Pb are shown to originate from abandoned gold mines. The results of this study clearly show that the movement and behavior of As, Cd, and Pb are governed mostly by the specific environment of the paddy field soil. Our results also show that these elements can be transported to the agricultural fields to up to 4 km or farther away from their source mines, and affect the surrounding environment. Accordingly, the most appropriate remediation strategy for paddy field soils that are polluted by toxic metals (and arsenic) due to mining activities would be one that takes into account their characteristics, in particular the fact that both oxidizing and reducing environments occur.
    Keywords: Abandoned Mine ; Distribution ; Farmland ; Metal(Loid)S ; Transport ; Paddy ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0375-6742
    E-ISSN: 1879-1689
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, October 2017, Vol.181, pp.129-137
    Description: In many parts of the world, metal(loid)s resulting from mining activities are causing significant environmental concern, in particular because they are contaminating agricultural lands. In this respect, a previous study in South Korea suggested that a specific agricultural practice, associated with the growing of rice in paddy fields, could contribute specifically to the geographic spread of metal(loid)s contamination away from mine sites. The purpose of the research described in this article was to confirm this hypothesis at a different site. Samples from the surface soil of agricultural lands were collected from 374 sites (267 paddy soils and 107 dry field soils). The concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from the samples were analyzed and descriptive statistics and multivariate statistical analysis were carried out to identify potential sources of these various elements. In addition, geographical information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze the interrelationship between the mining activities and the distribution of meta(loid)s in agricultural lands. The results clearly show that the transport and distribution of As and Pb originating from the abandoned mine are distinct depending on the agricultural practice that was adopted locally. The highest concentrations of As and Pb are in agricultural soils nearest the abandoned mine site (〈 1 km) because of climatic factors such as wind and precipitation that affect the direct mobilization of metal-bearing mine wastes. However, the distribution characteristics of As and Pb in the oxidizing environment of dry field soils in general suggest that the degree of pollution by these elements fell notably as the distance from the abandoned mine increased. In the alternatingly oxidizing and reducing environment of paddy soils, by contrast, the distribution of As and Pb is noticeably different from those of the dry field soils. Arsenic in particular is widely distributed across the study area with a high level of pollution regardless of the distance from the abandoned mine. These results confirm the hypothesis that the transport characteristics of metal(loid)s initially mobilized from an abandoned mine site into the paddy soils are predominantly governed by the specific submerged environment of rice paddy soils and these specific environments impact a wider area than climatic factors.
    Keywords: Abandoned Mine ; Metal(Loid) ; Arsenic ; Soil Contamination ; Paddy ; Gis ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0375-6742
    E-ISSN: 1879-1689
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: South Korea Metal and Mining, August 17, 2017, p.6(1)
    Description: In many parts of the world, metal(loid)s resulting from mining activities are causing significant environmental concern, in particular because they are contaminating agricultural lands. In this respect, a previous study in South Korea suggested that a specific agricultural practice, associated with the growing of rice in paddy fields, could contribute specifically to the geographic spread of metal(loid)s contamination away from mine sites. The purpose of the research described in this article was to confirm this hypothesis at a different site. Samples from the surface soil of agricultural lands were collected from 374 sites (267 paddy soils and 107 dry field soils). The concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from the samples were analyzed and descriptive statistics and multivariate statistical analysis were carried out to identify potential sources of these various elements. In addition, geographical information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze the interrelationship between the mining activities and the distribution of meta(loid)s in agricultural lands. The results clearly show that the transport and distribution of As and Pb originating from the abandoned mine are distinct depending on the agricultural practice that was adopted locally. The highest concentrations of As and Pb are in agricultural soils nearest the abandoned mine site (〈 1 km) because of climatic factors such as wind and precipitation that affect the direct mobilization of metal-bearing mine wastes. However, the distribution characteristics of As and Pb in the oxidizing environment of dry field soils in general suggest that the degree of pollution by these elements fell notably as the distance from the abandoned mine increased. In the alternatingly oxidizing and reducing environment of paddy soils, by contrast, the distribution of As and Pb is noticeably different from those of the dry field soils. Arsenic in particular is widely distributed across the study area with a high level of pollution regardless of the distance from the abandoned mine. These results confirm the hypothesis that the transport characteristics of metal(loid)s initially mobilized from an abandoned mine site into the paddy soils are predominantly governed by the specific submerged environment of rice paddy soils and these specific environments impact a wider area than climatic factors.
    Keywords: Mining Industry – Analysis ; Agricultural Land – Analysis ; Gold Mining – Analysis
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: South Korea Metal and Mining, August 25, 2017, p.7(1)
    Description: In many parts of the world, metal(loid)s resulting from mining activities are causing significant environmental concern, in particular because they are contaminating agricultural lands. In this respect, a previous study in South Korea suggested that a specific agricultural practice, associated with the growing of rice in paddy fields, could contribute specifically to the geographic spread of metal(loid)s contamination away from mine sites. The purpose of the research described in this article was to confirm this hypothesis at a different site. Samples from the surface soil of agricultural lands were collected from 374 sites (267 paddy soils and 107 dry field soils). The concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from the samples were analyzed and descriptive statistics and multivariate statistical analysis were carried out to identify potential sources of these various elements. In addition, geographical information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze the interrelationship between the mining activities and the distribution of meta(loid)s in agricultural lands. The results clearly show that the transport and distribution of As and Pb originating from the abandoned mine are distinct depending on the agricultural practice that was adopted locally. The highest concentrations of As and Pb are in agricultural soils nearest the abandoned mine site (〈 1 km) because of climatic factors such as wind and precipitation that affect the direct mobilization of metal-bearing mine wastes. However, the distribution characteristics of As and Pb in the oxidizing environment of dry field soils in general suggest that the degree of pollution by these elements fell notably as the distance from the abandoned mine increased. In the alternatingly oxidizing and reducing environment of paddy soils, by contrast, the distribution of As and Pb is noticeably different from those of the dry field soils. Arsenic in particular is widely distributed across the study area with a high level of pollution regardless of the distance from the abandoned mine. These results confirm the hypothesis that the transport characteristics of metal(loid)s initially mobilized from an abandoned mine site into the paddy soils are predominantly governed by the specific submerged environment of rice paddy soils and these specific environments impact a wider area than climatic factors.
    Keywords: Mining Industry – Analysis ; Agricultural Land – Analysis ; Gold Mining – Analysis
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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