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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, March 2013, Vol.66(3), pp.617-627
    Description: ► We provide the first exhaustive phylogeny of crocuses based on nuclear sequences. ► We reconstruct chromosome number evolution and polyploidization in . ► 8 out of 15 series of are monophyletic, as well as probably both sections. ► Chromosome numbers increased multiple times independently by polyploidization. ► Supernumerary B chromosomes evolved at least five times independently within consists of about 100 species distributed from western Europe and northern Africa to western China, with the center of diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in Asia Minor. Our study focuses on clarifying phylogenetic relationships and chromosome number evolution within the genus using sequences of the chloroplast L-F region, the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and a part of the nuclear single-copy gene . In a combined dataset of ITS and L-F sequences, 115 individuals representing 110 taxa from both subgenera and all sections and series of were analyzed with Bayesian phylogenetic inference. For 79 individuals representing 74 taxa were included, and for the majority of them PCR amplicons were cloned and up to eight clones per individual were sequenced to detect allopolyploidization events. species were included as outgroup in both analyses. Characteristics of seed surface structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS/ L-F data resulted in a monophyletic genus , probably monophyletic sections and , and inferred monophyly for eight of the 15 series of the genus. The aggregate, thought to be consisting of closely related subspecies, was found to be polyphyletic, the taxa occurring within three major clades in the phylogenetic tree. Cloning of resulted in the detection of homoeologous copies in about one third of the taxa of section , indicating an allotetraploid origin of this section. Reconstruction of chromosome number evolution along the phylogenetic tree using a probabilistic and a parsimony approach arrived at partly contradictory results. Both analyses agreed however on the occurrence of multiple polyploidization and dysploidy events. B chromosomes evolved at least five times independently within the genus, preferentially in clades characterized by karyotype changes.
    Keywords: B Chromosome ; Chromosome Number ; Crocus ; Evolution ; Internal Transcribed Spacer (Its) ; Pcosat103 ; Phylogeny ; Trnl-F ; Seed Testa ; Whole Genome Duplication ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, October 2018, Vol.127, pp.891-897
    Description: Phylogenetic relationships among the taxa of series are still unclear, preventing the understanding of species diversity and the evolution of the important spice saffron ( ). Therefore, we analyzed sequences of two chloroplast ( L- F, K- K) and three nuclear (TOPO6, ribosomal DNA ETS and ITS) marker regions to infer phylogenetic relationships among all species belonging to series . Our phylogenetic analyses resolved the relationships among all taxa of the series. and the former subspecies appeared polyphyletic. The latter deserve elevating the subspecies to species rank, while for a detailed study of species boundaries is necessary. Multi-locus and also genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data obtained through genotyping-by-sequencing placed within with no indication that other species contributed to the evolution of the triploid. Our analyses thus made an autotriploid origin of from very likely.
    Keywords: Crocus Series Crocus ; Evolution ; GBS ; Multi-Locus Analysis ; Phylogeny ; Saffron ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 3
    In: Phytotaxa, 05/11/2016, Vol.260(2), p.131
    ISSN: 1179-3155
    E-ISSN: 1179-3163
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    In: TURKISH JOURNAL OF BOTANY, 2014, Vol.38, pp.1182-1198
    Description: Recent phylogenetic analyses proved several infrageneric units within the genus Crocus to be para- or polyphyletic. In an attempt to arrive at a system of Crocus that closely reflects species relationships, we provide here phylogenetic, morphometric, geographic, and nomenclatorial data for the species of a narrower-defined, monophyletic Crocus series Reticulati. We sequenced the ETS and ITS regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA in 9 Reticulati and 19 outgroup species. Three chloroplast loci (trnL-F, rps16-trnQ, matK-trnK) were sequenced in the newly defined series Reticulati species and 1 outgroup. Data were analyzed with Bayesian and parsimony algorithms. The phylogenies resulted in 2 clearly separated, geographically defined species groups within the series Reticulati. The southern one comprises only the taxa from Turkey, while the species of the second group are distributed from Italy in the west through the areas north of the Black Sea to the Caucasus in the east. To arrive at monophyletic species we describe here C. danubensis sp. nov., C. filis-maculatis sp. nov., and C. orphei sp. nov. as new species, and we define C. reticulatus s.s. to comprise only the populations in the area north and east of the Black Sea.
    Keywords: Botany;
    ISSN: 1300008X
    E-ISSN: 13036106
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, July 2019, Vol.136, pp.14-20
    Description: , the saffron crocus, is the source of saffron, which is made from the dried stigmas of the plant. It is a male-sterile triploid lineage that ever since its origin has been propagated vegetatively. Its mode of evolution and area of origin are matters of long-lasting debates. Here we analyzed chloroplast genomes and genome-wide DNA polymorphisms obtained through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to infer the parent and area of origin of . These data were complemented by genome size measurements and analyses of nuclear single-copy genes. We could place 99.3% of saffron GBS alleles in , a species occurring in southeastern mainland Greece and on Aegean islands, identifying it as the sole progenitor of the saffron crocus. Phylogenetic and population assignment analyses together with chloroplast polymorphisms indicated the population in the vicinity of Athens as most similar to . We conclude that the crop is an autotriploid that evolved in Attica by combining two different genotypes of . Triploid sterility and vegetative propagation prevented afterwards segregation of the favorable traits of saffron, resulting in worldwide cultivation of a unique clonal lineage.
    Keywords: Autotriploidy ; Crocus ; Crop Evolution ; Domestication ; Genotyping-By-Sequencing ; Saffron ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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