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  • Knauf, Sascha  (53)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, December 2013, Vol.19(12), pp.2058-60
    Description: To the Editor: In 2012, the World Health Organization launched plans for a second campaign to eradicate the neglected tropical disease, yaws (1). The first campaign, conducted during the mid-20th century, was tremendously successful in terms of treatment and reduced the number of cases by 95%. However, it failed to eradicate the disease, and when local efforts to prevent new cases proved insufficient, yaws resurged in some areas. Comments on the new yaws eradication campaign have emphasized the need for sustained support and resources. Here we draw attention to an additional concern that could impede yaws eradication efforts.
    Keywords: Africa ; World Health Organization ; Bacteria ; Eradication ; Nonhuman Primates ; Pallidum ; Pertenue ; Syphilis ; Treponeme ; Yaws ; Zoonoses ; Disease Reservoirs ; Monkey Diseases -- Transmission ; Primates -- Microbiology ; Treponemal Infections -- Veterinary ; Yaws -- Transmission
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(8), p.e43709
    Description: Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys ( Callithrix jacchus) to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ). LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Veterinary Science ; Immunology ; Pharmacology ; Respiratory Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(11), p.e0143100
    Description: The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of medical primatology, February 2014, Vol.43(1), pp.55-8
    Description: The distribution of ciliated cells in the tracheal epithelium of common marmosets was evaluated. Light and scanning electron microscopy of tracheal epithelium was performed. Ciliated cells were concentrated in cartilage-free areas and virtually absent in cartilage-supported epithelial regions. Heterogeneous distribution of ciliated cells in the trachea has to be considered when using animal models for translational respiratory research approaches.
    Keywords: Callithrix -- Anatomy & Histology ; Cilia -- Ultrastructure ; Epithelial Cells -- Cytology ; Trachea -- Cytology
    ISSN: 00472565
    E-ISSN: 1600-0684
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  • 5
    Language: Norwegian
    In: Zinner, Dietmar Atickem, Anagaw Meshesha Beehner, Jacinta C. Bekele, Afework Bergman, Thore J. Burke, Ryan Dolotovskaya, Sofya Fashing, Peter Gippoliti, Spartaco Knauf, Sascha Knauf, Yvonne Mekonnen, Addisu Moges, Amera Nguyen, Nga Stenseth, Nils Christian...
    Description: The large-bodied, terrestrial primates in the tribe Papionini are among the most intensely studied animals in the world, yet for some members of this tribe we know comparatively little about their evolutionary history and phylogeography. Geladas (Theropithecus...
    Keywords: Mitochondrial Dna -- Research ; Biogeography -- Analysis ; Gelada -- Health Aspects ; Gelada -- Research ; Gelada -- Protection And Preservation ; Phylogeny -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 6
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(12)
    Description: It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum , the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum ), yaws (subsp. pertenue ), and bejel (subsp. endemicum ) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum -associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Veterinary Science
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of veterinary science, 30 November 2018, Vol.19(6), pp.725-734
    Description: Ovaries of 21 bitches presented with gynecopathies were surgically removed and histologically examined. Standard histological, as well as immunohistochemical, classification of 193 cystic structures resulted in the classification of 72 cysts of subsurface epithelial structures (SES), 61 follicular cysts (FCs), 38 cystic rete ovarii (CRO), 13 lutein cysts (LCs), and 9 non-classifiable cysts (NCCs). In addition to the histological classification, results were interpreted according to subject medical history, clinical examination outcome, and macroscopic observations during ovariohysterectomy. Dogs with ovarian cysts (OCs) and associated reproductive perturbations were mostly nulliparous, of large breed, and had an average of 9.5 ± 3 years. Prolonged or shortened inter-estrus intervals of past heats, however, seemed to be relatively low-risk factors for the development of OCs in dogs. Furthermore, we provide histological observations of a rarely seen canine LC including a degenerated oocyte in the central cavity.
    Keywords: Dogs ; Histology ; Immunohistochemistry ; Medical History Taking ; Ovarian Cysts ; Dog Diseases -- Classification ; Ovarian Cysts -- Veterinary
    ISSN: 1229845X
    E-ISSN: 1976-555X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Sciences, 01 June 2014, Vol.1(1), pp.63-76
    Description: Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are small non-human primates (NHPs) that are often used for respiratory research. Translational animal models of various pulmonary diseases in marmosets have been developed in favor of models in old world monkeys (OWM, e.g., rhesus or cynomolgus monkeys)....
    Keywords: Marmoset ; Non-Human Primate ; Animal Models ; Respiratory Diseases ; Veterinary Medicine
    E-ISSN: 2306-7381
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  • 9
    In: Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2017, Vol.6(9), p.e79
    Description: Central to the One Health approach and any disease eradication program is the question of whether a pathogen has a non-human reservoir. Despite well-established conceptual frameworks that define a reservoir of infection, empirical characterization of reservoirs often remains controversial, challenging and sometimes misleading. What is essentially missing are applicable requirements that standardize the use of the term 'reservoir of infection' across multiple disciplines. We propose an empirical framework, considering maintenance and feasible transmission of a pathogen, to standardize the acceptance of a disease reservoir across multiple disciplines. We demonstrate the intended use of these requirements by applying them to different diseases that are known to infect both humans and animals.
    Keywords: Public Health;
    ISSN: 2222-1751
    E-ISSN: 2222-1751
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, July 2018, Vol.61, pp.92-107
    Description: is an uncultivable bacterium and the causative agent of syphilis (subsp. [TPA]), human yaws (subsp. [TPE]), and bejel (subsp. ). Several species of nonhuman primates in Africa are infected by treponemes genetically undistinguishable from known human TPE strains. Besides , the equally uncultivable causes pinta in humans. In lagomorphs, ecovar Cuniculus and ecovar Lepus are the causative agents of rabbit and hare syphilis, respectively. All uncultivable pathogenic treponemes harbor a relatively small chromosome (1.1334–1.1405 Mbp) and show gene synteny with minimal genetic differences (〉98% identity at the DNA level) between subspecies and species. While uncultivable pathogenic treponemes contain a highly conserved core genome, there are a number of highly variable and/or recombinant chromosomal loci. This is also reflected in the occurrence of intrastrain heterogeneity (genetic diversity within an infecting bacterial population). Molecular differences at several different chromosomal loci identified among TPA strains or isolates have been used for molecular typing and the epidemiological characterization of syphilis isolates. This review summarizes genome structure of uncultivable pathogenic treponemes including genetically variable regions.
    Keywords: Treponema Pallidum Subsp. Pallidum ; T. Pallidum Subsp. Pertenue ; T. Pallidum Subsp. Endemicum ; T. Paraluisleporidarum ; Non-Human Primates ; Molecular Evolution ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1567-1348
    E-ISSN: 1567-7257
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