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  • 1
    In: Geoarchaeology, July 2015, Vol.30(4), pp.369-378
    Description: Roman cisterns served as rainwater storage devices for centuries and are densely distributed in parts of northern Jordan. A major earthquake hit the region . A.D. 750 and in a short time many settlements were abandoned. As a consequence, most cisterns were not maintained, and they filled with sediments that today provide a postabandonment depositional record. In two field surveys, we mapped the locations of more than 100 cisterns in the Wadi Al‐Arab basin and selected two for detailed stratigraphic analysis that included C and optically stimulated luminescence dating. Catchment basin area for each cistern was determined by differential GPS. Both cisterns filled with sediments after the great earthquake and consequent abandonment of the region. Calculated sediment volumes are translated to long‐term average sediment export rates of 2.6–6.6 t haa, which are comparable to erosion and sediment yield rates from other studies within the Mediterranean region. Our pilot study suggests that this approach can be applied elsewhere to calculate long‐term sediment export rates on hill slopes containing relict cisterns.
    Keywords: Quaternary Geology ; Sedimentary Petrology ; Arid Environment ; Asia ; Cenozoic ; Chronostratigraphy ; Clay Minerals ; Climate Change ; Climatic Controls ; Dates ; Depositional Environment ; Desertification ; Drainage Basins ; Erodibility ; Erosion ; Erosion Rates ; Holocene ; Human Activity ; Human Ecology ; Hydrology ; Jordan ; Jordan River ; Land Use ; Mediterranean Region ; Middle Ages ; Middle East ; Optically Stimulated Luminescence ; Paleogeography ; Permeability ; Quaternary ; Rainfall ; Reconstruction ; Roman Period ; Sediment Yield ; Sedimentation ; Sheet Silicates ; Silicates ; Soil Erosion ; Stratigraphy ; Terrestrial Environment ; Upper Holocene ; Urban Environment ; Wadi Al-Arab ; Water Resources;
    ISSN: 0883-6353
    E-ISSN: 1520-6548
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10/2015, Vol.15(10), pp.2155-2173
    Description: Purpose: Water reservoirs around the world suffer from accelerated sediment loads and, consequently, contamination. Notably, in water-scarce regions such as Jordan, this poses a threat to an important water source, and identifying the sediment sources is an important task. Thus, a sediment fingerprinting study in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment of northern Jordan was implemented with special attention directed to the development of suitable correction factors necessary to improve the comparability of source and sink sediments. The selection of seven conservative elements for the sediment fingerprinting was made, with specific attention directed to the chemical environment of the reservoir. Materials and methods: Thirty-six samples from six different surface and subsurface sources and 38 sink samples from the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir were collected. In total, 27 organic and inorganic elements as well as radionuclides were analysed. Two vertical physicochemical water profiles provided information on the pH and Eh conditions and common element concentrations. The stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) was developed to explore parameters that influence the element concentrations and their interrelations, and to calculate an element-specific correction factor. The standard selection procedure was expanded by the comparison of water and sink sediment element concentrations, a literature review concerning the pH and Eh conditions and, in selected cases, a correlation analysis. Results and discussion: The combination of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, super(232)Th, super(228)Th and super(137)Cs provided the best source discrimination, and based on Monte Carlo simulations, the mixing model revealed the existence of three major sediment source areas. These are as follows: (i) olive orchards on slopes, which delivered 59 plus or minus 8 % of the sediments in the sink; (ii) cultivated fields on plateau and saddle positions contributed 11 plus or minus 9 %; and (iii) slopes with natural vegetation used for grazing contributed 29 plus or minus 15 % of the deposited sediment. With a mean residual error of 1.04 %, the sum of the source concentrations differs only slightly from sink concentrations and proves that the model is reliable. Conclusions: The SMRAM model revealed that the different inorganic (total inorganic carbon, TIC) and organic (total organic carbon, TOC) carbon contents and the clay/sand content influence the element concentrations of the sediment samples. Due to the carbonatic environment, it was mainly necessary to correct for TIC. Applying an expanded literature review regarding the chemical environment under investigation, in addition to the standard mass conservation and Kruskal-Wallis test, prevented possible non-conservative elements from entering the discriminant analysis.
    Keywords: Reservoir ; Sediment Sources ; Fingerprinting ; Carbon ; Literature Reviews ; Total Organic Carbon ; Sediments ; Redox Potential ; Modelling ; Carbon ; Vegetation ; Conservation ; Hydrogen Ion Concentration ; Sinks ; Standards ; Slopes ; Reservoirs ; Sediments ; Conferences and Other Meetings ; General;
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Geoarchaeology, 2015, Vol.30(4), p.369(10)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/gea.21517/abstract Byline: Sabine Kraushaar, Gregor Ollesch, Christian Siebert, Hans-Joerg Vogel, Markus Fuchs Roman cisterns served as rainwater storage devices for centuries and are densely distributed in parts of northern Jordan. A major earthquake hit the region ca. A.D. 750 and in a short time many settlements were abandoned. As a consequence, most cisterns were not maintained, and they filled with sediments that today provide a postabandonment depositional record. In two field surveys, we mapped the locations of more than 100 cisterns in the Wadi Al-Arab basin and selected two for detailed stratigraphic analysis that included .sub.14C and optically stimulated luminescence dating. Catchment basin area for each cistern was determined by differential GPS. Both cisterns filled with sediments after the great earthquake and consequent abandonment of the region. Calculated sediment volumes are translated to long-term average sediment export rates of 2.6-6.6 t ha.sub.-1a.sub.-1, which are comparable to erosion and sediment yield rates from other studies within the Mediterranean region. Our pilot study suggests that this approach can be applied elsewhere to calculate long-term sediment export rates on hill slopes containing relict cisterns. Article Note: Scientific editing by Andreas Lang CAPTION(S): Supporting materials
    Keywords: Radiometric Dating – Analysis ; Computer Storage Devices – International Trade ; Computer Storage Devices – Analysis ; Rainwater – Analysis ; Sediments (Geology) – Analysis ; Exports – Analysis
    ISSN: 0883-6353
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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