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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2010, Vol.74(19), pp.5574-5592
    Description: In oxic environments contaminated with arsenate (As(V)), small polyhydroxycarboxylates such as citrate may impact the structure of precipitating ferrihydrite (Fh) and thus the surface speciation of As(V). In this study, ‘2-line’ Fh was precipitated from ferric nitrate solutions that were neutralized to pH 6.5 in the presence of increasing citrate concentrations and in the absence or presence of As(V). The initial citrate/Fe and As/Fe ratios were 0–50 mol% and 5 mol%, respectively. The reaction products, enriched with up to 0.32 mol citrate per mole Fe, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe and As K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Citrate decreased the particle size of Fh by impairing the polymerization of Fe(O,OH) octahedra via edge and corner linkages. In the presence of citrate and As(V), coordination numbers of Fe decreased by up to 28% relative to pure Fh. Citrate significantly reduced the static disorder of Fe–O bonds, implying a decreased octahedral distortion in Fh. Mean bond distances in Fh were not affected by citrate and remained constant within error at 1.98 Å for Fe–O, 3.03 Å for Fe–Fe1, and 3.45 Å for Fe–Fe2. Likewise, citrate had no effect on the As–Fe (3.31 Å) bond distance in As(V) coprecipitated with Fh. The As K-edge EXAFS data comply with the formation of (i) only monodentate binuclear ( C) As(V) surface complexes and (ii) combinations of C, monodentate mononuclear ( V), and outersphere As(V) surface complexes. Our results suggest that increasing citrate concentrations led to a decreasing V/ C ratio and/or that citrate increasingly impaired the formation of outersphere As(V) complexes. Moreover, citrate stabilized colloidal suspensions of Fh (pH 4.3–6.6, ∼0.45 M) and reduced Fh formation at the expense of soluble Fe(III)-citrate complexes. At initial citrate/Fe ratios ⩾25 mol%, between 8% and 41% of total Fe was bound in Fe(III)-citrate complexes after Fh formation. Polynuclear Fe(III)-citrate species were found to bind As(V) via surface complexes indistinguishable by EXAFS from those of As(V) adsorbed to or coprecipitated with Fh. Our study implies that low molecular weight polyhydroxycarboxylates may enhance the mobility of As(V) in aqueous systems of high ionic strength (e.g., neutralizing acid mine drainage) by colloidal stabilization of suspended Fh particles and the formation of ternary As(V) complexes.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2008, Vol.72(13), pp.3292-3292
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 15 November 2011, Vol.45(22), pp.9550-7
    Description: Formation of ternary complexes between arsenic (As) oxyanions and ferric iron (Fe) complexes of humic substances (HS) is often hypothesized to represent a major mechanism for As-HS interactions under oxic conditions. However, direct evidence for this potentially important binding mechanism is still lacking. To investigate the molecular-scale interaction between arsenate, As(V), and HS in the presence of Fe(III), we reacted fulvic and humic acids with Fe(III) (1 wt %) and equilibrated the Fe(III)-HS complexes formed with As(V) at pH 7 (molar Fe/As ~10). The local (〈5 Å) coordination environments of As and Fe were subsequently studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our results show that 4.5-12.5 μmol As(V)/g HS (25-70% of total As) was associated with Fe(III). At least 70% of this As pool was bound to Fe(III)-HS complexes via inner-sphere complexation. Results obtained from shell fits of As K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were consistent with a monodentate binuclear ((2)C) and monodentate mononuclear ((1)V) complex stabilized by H-bonds (R(As-Fe) = 3.30 Å). The analysis of Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra revealed that Fe in Fe(III)-HS complexes was predominantly present as oligomeric Fe(III) clusters at neutral pH. Shell-fit results complied with a structural motif in which three corner-sharing Fe(O,OH)(6) octahedra linked by a single μ(3)-O bridge form a planar Fe trimer. In these complexes, the average Fe-C and Fe-Fe bond distances were 2.95 Å and 3.47 Å, respectively. Our study provides the first spectroscopic evidence for ternary complex formation between As(V) and Fe(III)-HS complexes, suggesting that this binding mechanism is of fundamental importance for the cycling of oxyanions such as As(V) in organic-rich, oxic soils and sediments.
    Keywords: Arsenates -- Chemistry ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Humic Substances -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 4
    In: Nature Geoscience, 2011, Vol.5(1), p.66
    ISSN: 1752-0894
    Source: Nature Publishing Group
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 18 February 2014, Vol.48(4), pp.2281-9
    Description: Organosulfur-coordinated As(III) and realgar (α-As4S4) have been identified as the dominant As species in the naturally As-enriched minerotrophic peatland Gola di Lago, Switzerland. In this study, we explored their oxidation kinetics in peat exposed to atmospheric O2 for up to 180 days under sterile and nonsterile conditions (25 °C, ∼ 100% relative humidity). Anoxic peat samples were collected from a near-surface (0-38 cm) and a deep peat layer (200-250 cm) and studied by bulk As, Fe, and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy as well as selective extractions as a function of time. Over 180 days, only up to 33% of organosulfur-coordinated As(III) and 44% of realgar were oxidized, corresponding to half-life times, t1/2, of 312 and 215 days, respectively. The oxidation of both As species was mainly controlled by abiotic processes. Realgar was oxidized orders of magnitude slower than predicted from published mixed-flow reactor experiments, indicating that mass-transfer processes were rate-limiting. Most of the As released (〉97%) was sequestered by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides. However, water-extractable As reached concentrations of 0.7-19 μmol As L(-1), exceeding the WHO drinking water limit by up to 145 times. Only a fraction (20-36%) of reduced S(-II to I) was sensitive to oxidation and was oxidized faster (t1/2 = 50-173 days) than organosulfur-coordinated As(III) and realgar, suggesting a rapid loss of reactive As-sequestering S species following a drop in the water table. Our results imply that wetlands like Gola di Lago can serve as long-term sources for As under prolonged oxidizing conditions. The maintenance of reducing conditions is thus regarded as the primary strategy in the management of this and other As-rich peatlands.
    Keywords: Arsenic -- Chemistry ; Arsenicals -- Chemistry ; Soil -- Chemistry ; Sulfides -- Chemistry ; Sulfur Compounds -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 07 October 2014, Vol.48(19), pp.11320-9
    Description: Elevated solution concentrations of As in anoxic natural systems are usually accompanied by microbially mediated As(V), Mn(III/IV), and Fe(III) reduction. The microbially mediated reductive dissolution of Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides mainly liberates sorbed As(V) which is subsequently reduced to As(III). Manganese oxides have been shown to rapidly oxidize As(III) and Fe(II) under oxic conditions, but their net effect on the microbially mediated reductive release of As and Fe is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the microbial reduction of As(V)-bearing ferrihydrite (molar As/Fe: 0.05; Fe tot: 32.1 mM) by Shewanella sp. ANA-3 (10(8) cells/mL) in the presence of different concentrations of birnessite (Mn tot: 0, 0.9, 3.1 mM) at circumneutral pH over 397 h using wet-chemical analyses and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additional abiotic experiments were performed to explore the reactivity of birnessite toward As(III) and Fe(II) in the presence of Mn(II), Fe(II), ferrihydrite, or deactivated bacterial cells. Compared to the birnessite-free control, the highest birnessite concentration resulted in 78% less Fe and 47% less As reduction at the end of the biotic experiment. The abiotic oxidation of As(III) by birnessite (k initial = 0.68 ± 0.31/h) was inhibited by Mn(II) and ferrihydrite, and lowered by Fe(II) and bacterial cell material. In contrast, the oxidation of Fe(II) by birnessite proceeded equally fast under all conditions (k initial = 493 ± 2/h) and was significantly faster than the oxidation of As(III). We conclude that in the presence of birnessite, microbially produced Fe(II) is rapidly reoxidized and precipitates as As-sequestering ferrihydrite. Our findings imply that the ability of Mn-oxides to oxidize As(III) in water-logged soils and sediments is limited by the formation of ferrihydrite and surface passivation processes.
    Keywords: Arsenic -- Chemistry ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Iron -- Chemistry ; Oxides -- Chemistry ; Shewanella -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 2013, Vol.47(21), pp.12165-73
    Description: The speciation of As in wetlands is often controlled by natural organic matter (NOM), which can form strong complexes with Fe(III). Here, we elucidated the molecular-scale interaction of arsenite (As(III)) with Fe(III)-NOM complexes under reducing conditions. We reacted peat (40-250 μm size fraction, 1.0 g Fe/kg) with 0-15 g Fe/kg at pH 〈2, removed nonreacted Fe, and subsequently equilibrated the Fe(III) complexes formed with 900 mg As/kg peat at pH 7.0, 8.4, and 8.8. The solid-phase speciation of Fe and As was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (Fe) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (As, Fe). Our results show that the majority of Fe in the peat was present as mononuclear Fe(III) species (RFe-C = 2.82-2.88 Å), probably accompanied by small Fe(III) clusters of low nuclearity (RFe-Fe = 3.25-3.46 Å) at high pH and elevated Fe contents. The amount of As(III) retained by the original peat was 161 mg As/kg, which increased by up to 250% at pH 8.8 and an Fe loading of 7.3 g/kg. With increasing Fe content of peat, As(III) increasingly formed bidentate mononuclear (RAs-Fe = 2.88-2.94 Å) and monodentate binuclear (RAs-Fe = 3.35-3.41 Å) complexes with Fe, thus yielding direct evidence of ternary complex formation. The ternary complex formation went along with a ligand exchange reaction between As(III) and hydroxylic/phenolic groups of the peat (RAs-C = 2.70-2.77 Å). Our findings thus provide spectroscopic evidence for two yet unconfirmed As(III)-NOM interaction mechanisms, which may play a vital role in the cycling of As in sub- and anoxic NOM-rich environments such as peatlands, peaty sediments, swamps, or rice paddies.
    Keywords: Arsenites -- Metabolism ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Soil -- Chemistry ; Soil Pollutants -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 01 April 2014, Vol.48(7), pp.3822-31
    Description: Binding of arsenite (As(III)) to sulfhydryl groups (Sorg(-II)) plays a key role in As detoxification mechanisms of plants and microorganisms, As remediation techniques, and reduced environmental systems rich in natural organic matter. Here, we studied the formation of Sorg(-II)-As(III) complexes on a sulfhydryl model adsorbent (Ambersep GT74 resin) in the absence and presence of ferrihydrite as a competing mineral adsorbent under reducing conditions and tested their stability against oxidation in air. Adsorption of As(III) onto the resin was studied in the pH range 4.0-9.0. On the basis of As X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results, a surface complexation model describing the pH dependence of As(III) binding to the organic adsorbent was developed. Stability constants (log K) determined for dithio ((AmbS)2AsO(-)) and trithio ((AmbS)3As) surface complexes were 8.4 and 7.3, respectively. The ability of sulfhydryl ligands to compete with ferrihydrite for As(III) was tested in various anoxic mixtures of both adsorbents at pH 7.0. At a 1:1 ratio of their reactive binding sites, R-SH and ≡FeOH, both adsorbents possessed nearly identical affinities for As(III). The oxidation of Sorg(-II)-As(III) complexes in water vapor saturated air over 80 days, monitored by As and S XAS, revealed that the complexed As(III) is stabilized against oxidation (t1/2 = 318 days). Our results thus document that sulfhydryl ligands are highly competitive As(III) complexing agents that can stabilize As in its reduced oxidation state even under prolonged oxidizing conditions. These findings are particularly relevant for organic S-rich semiterrestrial environments subject to periodic redox potential changes such as peatlands, marshes, and estuaries.
    Keywords: Models, Theoretical ; Arsenites -- Chemistry ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Sulfhydryl Compounds -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Technology, 06 September 2016, Vol.50(17)
    Description: Reductive release of the potentially toxic metalloid As from Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides has been identified as an important process leading to elevated As porewater concentrations in soils and sediments. Despite the ubiquitous presence of Mn oxides in soils and their oxidizing power toward As(III), their impact on interrelated As, Fe, and Mn speciation under microbially reducing conditions remains largely unknown. For this reason, we employed a column setup and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the influence of increasing birnessite concentrations (molar soil Fe-to-Mn ratios: 4.8, 10.2, and 24.7) on As speciation and release from an As-contaminated floodplain soil (214 mg As/kg) under anoxic conditions. Our results show that birnessite additions significantly decreased As leaching. The reduction of both As and Fe was delayed, and As(III) accumulated in birnessite-rich column parts, indicating the passivation of birnessite and its transformation products toward As(III) oxidation and the precipitation of Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. Microbial Mn reduction resulted in elevated soil pH values, which in turn lowered the microbial activity in the birnessite-enriched soil. We conclude that in Mn-oxide-rich soil environments undergoing redox fluctuations, the enhanced As adsorption to newly formed Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides under reducing conditions leads to a transient stabilization of As.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 06 November 2012, Vol.46(21), pp.11788-97
    Description: Terrestrial ecosystems rich in natural organic matter (NOM) can act as a sink for As. Recently, the complexation of trivalent As by sulfhydryl groups of NOM was proposed as the main mechanism for As-NOM interactions in anoxic S- and NOM-rich environments. Here we tested the molecular-scale interaction of bisulfide (S(-II)) with NOM and its consequences for arsenite (As(III)) binding. We reacted 0.2 mol C/L peat and humic acid (HA) with up to 5.8 mM S(-II) at pH 7 and 5, respectively, and subsequently equilibrated the reaction products with 55 μM As(III) under anoxic conditions. The speciation of S and the local coordination environment of As in the solid phase were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our results document a rapid reaction of S(-II) with peat and HA and the concomitant formation of reduced organic S species. These species were highly reactive toward As(III). Shell fits of As K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra revealed that the coordination environment of trivalent As was progressively occupied by S atoms. Fitted As-S distances of 2.24-2.34 Å were consistent with sulfhydryl-bound As(III). Besides As(III) complexation by organic monosulfides, our data suggests the formation of nanocrystalline As sulfide phases in HA samples and an As sorption process for both organic sorbents in which As(III) retained its first-shell oxygens. In conclusion, this study documents that S(-II) reaction with NOM can greatly enhance the ability of NOM to bind As in anoxic environments.
    Keywords: Humic Substances ; Arsenites -- Chemistry ; Soil -- Chemistry ; Soil Pollutants -- Chemistry ; Sulfides -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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