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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2010, Vol.199(4), pp.291-297
    Description: Hypercytokinaemia is thought to contribute to highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus disease. Glycyrrhizin is known to exert immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and therefore a candidate drug for the control of H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression. Here, the effects of an approved parenteral glycyrrhizin preparation were investigated on H5N1 virus replication, H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory responses, and H5N1-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Glycyrrhizin 100 μg/ml, a therapeutically achievable concentration, impaired H5N1-induced production of CXCL10, interleukin 6, and CCL5 and inhibited H5N1-induced apoptosis but did not interfere with H5N1 replication. Global inhibition of immune responses may result in the loss of control of virus replication by cytotoxic immune cells including natural killer cells and cytotoxic CD8 + T-lymphocytes. Notably, glycyrrhizin concentrations that inhibited H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression did not affect cytolytic activity of natural killer cells. Since H5N1-induced hypercytokinaemia is considered to play an important role within H5N1 pathogenesis, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease.
    Keywords: Glycyrrhizin ; H5N1 ; Cytokines ; Monocyte-derived macrophages
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2009, Vol.198(4), pp.257-262
    Description: A coupled luminescent method (CLM) based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase released from injured target cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of antigen-specific HLA class I-restricted CTLs. In contrast to established methods, CLM does not require the pretreatment of target cells with radioactive or toxic labeling substances. CTLs from healthy HLA-A2 positive donors were stimulated by autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with HLA-A2 restricted HCMV-pp65 nonamer peptides. HLA-A2 positive T2 cells or autologous monocytes pulsed with HCMV-pp65 nonamer peptide served as target cells. Lysis was detected only in HCMV-pp65-pulsed target cells incubated with CTLs from seropositive donors stimulated by HCMV-pp65-pulsed DCs. After 3 days, stimulation 38% of T2 cells and 17% of monocytes were lysed at an effector to target ratio of 8:1. In conclusion, CLM represents a highly sensitive, fast, material-saving and non-toxic/non-radioactive method for the measurement of antigen-specific CTL cytotoxic activity.
    Keywords: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes ; HLA-A2-restricted peptide ; Human cytomegalovirus ; Cytotoxicity ; Coupled luminescent method ; Dendritic cells
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Virology, 2009, Vol.46(1), pp.55-60
    Description: For the medical management, it would be of great relevance to get a diagnostic marker predicting the outcome of infection. For this purpose, the envelope antigens of the individual HCV strain in a patient was tested for their capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. A system for the measurement of neutralizing antibodies as well as for the stimulation of a HCV-specific T-cell response using pseudo-typed HCV particles (HCVpp) was established. A report on results of a pilot study conducted with blood specimens of 19 chronically infected patients is also presented. Neutralization of HCVpp could be measured in nearly all HCV sero-positive patient samples. Nevertheless, in more than half of the patient samples (11/19), no HCV-specific CD4+ response was detectable. In addition, HCV-specific CD8+ response was measurable in most of the patients when HCVpp were used for T-cell stimulation. Although the same antigens (HCVpp) were used, there was no relevant correlation between neutralization titers and T-cell response. Our study shows that HCVpp are appropriate antigens for specific stimulation of lymphocytes as well as for the investigation of antibody neutralization activity.
    Keywords: Humoral Immunity ; Cellular Immunity ; T-Cell Simulation ; Neutralization ; Biology
    ISSN: 1386-6532
    E-ISSN: 1873-5967
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