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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Lin, Huaiying  (8)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Gastroenterology, May 2018, Vol.154(6), pp.S-857-S-857
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0016-5085
    E-ISSN: 1528-0012
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 2
    In: Critical Care Medicine, 2017, Vol.45(6), pp.e543-e551
    Description: OBJECTIVES:: Characterization of urinary bacterial microbiome and antimicrobial peptides after burn injury to identify potential mechanisms leading to urinary tract infections and associated morbidities in burn patients. DESIGN:: Retrospective cohort study using human urine from control and burn subjects. SETTING:: University research laboratory. PATIENTS:: Burn patients. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Urine samples from catheterized burn patients were collected hourly for up to 40 hours. Control urine was collected from “healthy” volunteers. The urinary bacterial microbiome and antimicrobial peptide levels and activity were compared with patient outcomes. We observed a significant increase in urinary microbial diversity in burn patients versus controls, which positively correlated with a larger percent burn and with the development of urinary tract infection and sepsis postadmission, regardless of age or gender. Urinary psoriasin and β-defensin antimicrobial peptide levels were significantly reduced in burn patients at 1 and 40 hours postadmission. We observed a shift in antimicrobial peptide hydrophobicity and activity between control and burn patients when urinary fractions were tested against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis urinary tract infection isolates. Furthermore, the antimicrobial peptide activity in burn patients was more effective against E. coli than E. faecalis. Urinary tract infection–positive burn patients with altered urinary antimicrobial peptide activity developed either an E. faecalis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection, suggesting a role for urinary antimicrobial peptides in susceptibility to select uropathogens. CONCLUSIONS:: Our data reveal potential links for urinary tract infection development and several morbidities in burn patients through alterations in the urinary microbiome and antimicrobial peptides. Overall, this study supports the concept that early assessment of urinary antimicrobial peptide responses and the bacterial microbiome may be used to predict susceptibility to urinary tract infections and sepsis in burn patients.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0090-3493
    E-ISSN: 15300293
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  • 3
    In: SHOCK, 2017, Vol.48(4), pp.441-448
    Description: INTRODUCTION:: The cutaneous microbiome maintains skin barrier function, regulates inflammation, and stimulates wound-healing responses. Burn injury promotes an excessive activation of the cutaneous and systemic immune response directed against commensal and invading pathogens. Skin grafting is the primary method of reconstructing full-thickness burns, and wound infection continues to be a significant complication. METHODS:: In this study, the cutaneous bacterial microbiome was evaluated and subsequently compared to patient outcomes. Three different full-thickness skin specimens were assessed: control skin from non-burned subjects; burn margin from burn patients; and autologous donor skin from the same cohort of burn patients. RESULTS:: We observed that skin bacterial community structure of burn patients was significantly altered compared with control patients. We determined that the unburned autologous donor skin from burn patients exhibits a microbiome similar to that of the burn margin, rather than unburned controls, and that changes in the cutaneous microbiome statistically correlate with several post-burn complications. We established that Corynebacterium positively correlated with burn wound infection, while Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium negatively correlated with burn wound infection. Both Corynebacterium and Enterococcus negatively correlated with the development of sepsis. CONCLUSIONS:: This study identifies distinct differences in the cutaneous microbiome between burn subjects and unburned controls, and ascertains that select bacterial taxa significantly correlate with several comorbid complications of burn injury. These preliminary data suggest that grafting donor skin exhibiting bacterial dysbiosis may augment infection and/or graft failure and sets the foundation for more in-depth and mechanistic analyses in presumably “healthy” donor skin from patients requiring skin grafting procedures.
    Keywords: Adult–Etiology ; Autografts–Microbiology ; Bacterial Infections–Mortality ; Burns–Therapy ; Female–Microbiology ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome–Mortality ; Graft Survival–Surgery ; Humans–Etiology ; Male–Microbiology ; Middle Aged–Mortality ; Sepsis–Therapy ; Skin Transplantation–Microbiology ; Wound Infection–Mortality ; Wound Infection–Therapy;
    ISSN: 1073-2322
    E-ISSN: 15400514
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 15 July 2016, Vol.194(2), pp.226-35
    Description: Previous work found the lung microbiome in healthy subjects infected with HIV was similar to that in uninfected subjects. We hypothesized the lung microbiome from subjects infected with HIV with more advanced disease would differ from that of an uninfected control population. To measure the lung microbiome in an HIV-infected population with advanced disease. 16s RNA gene sequencing was performed on acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 30 subjects infected with HIV with advanced disease (baseline mean CD4 count, 262 cells/mm(3)) before and up to 3 years after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and compared with 22 uninfected control subjects. The lung microbiome in subjects infected with HIV with advanced disease demonstrated decreased alpha diversity (richness and diversity) and greater beta diversity compared with uninfected BAL. Differences improved with HAART, but still persisted up to 3 years after starting therapy. Population dispersion in the group infected with HIV was significantly greater than in the uninfected cohort and declined after treatment. There were differences in the relative abundance of some bacteria between the two groups at baseline and after 1 year of therapy. After 1 year on HAART, HIV BAL contained an increased abundance of Prevotella and Veillonella, bacteria previously associated with lung inflammation. The lung microbiome in subjects infected with HIV with advanced disease is altered compared with an uninfected population both in diversity and bacterial composition. Differences remain up to 3 years after starting HAART. We speculate an altered lung microbiome in HIV infection may contribute to chronic inflammation and lung complications seen in the HAART era.
    Keywords: HIV Infection ; Advanced Disease ; Lung Microbiome ; Microbial Diversity ; Microbiota ; HIV Infections -- Microbiology ; Lung -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 1073449X
    E-ISSN: 1535-4970
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: mBio, 15 September 2015, Vol.6(5), pp.e01315-15
    Description: The influence of the skin microbiota on host susceptibility to infectious agents is largely unexplored. The skin harbors diverse bacterial species that may promote or antagonize the growth of an invading pathogen. We developed a human infection model for Haemophilus ducreyi in which human volunteers are inoculated on the upper arm. After inoculation, papules form and either spontaneously resolve or progress to pustules. To examine the role of the skin microbiota in the outcome of H. ducreyi infection, we analyzed the microbiomes of four dose-matched pairs of "resolvers" and "pustule formers" whose inoculation sites were swabbed at multiple time points. Bacteria present on the skin were identified by amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between the preinfection microbiomes of infected sites showed that sites from the same volunteer clustered together and that pustule formers segregated from resolvers (P = 0.001, permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA]), suggesting that the preinfection microbiomes were associated with outcome. NMDS using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of the endpoint samples showed that the pustule sites clustered together and were significantly different than the resolved sites (P = 0.001, PERMANOVA), suggesting that the microbiomes at the endpoint differed between the two groups. In addition to H. ducreyi, pustule-forming sites had a greater abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paracoccus, and Staphylococcus species, whereas resolved sites had higher levels of Actinobacteria and Propionibacterium species. These results suggest that at baseline, resolvers and pustule formers have distinct skin bacterial communities which change in response to infection and the resultant immune response. Human skin is home to a diverse community of microorganisms, collectively known as the skin microbiome. Some resident bacteria are thought to protect the skin from infection by outcompeting pathogens for resources or by priming the immune system's response to invaders. However, the influence of the skin microbiome on the susceptibility to or protection from infection has not been prospectively evaluated in humans. We characterized the skin microbiome before, during, and after experimental inoculation of the arm with Haemophilus ducreyi in matched volunteers who subsequently resolved the infection or formed abscesses. Our results suggest that the preinfection microbiomes of pustule formers and resolvers have distinct community structures which change in response to the progression of H. ducreyi infection to abscess formation.
    Keywords: Microbiota ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Growth & Development ; Skin -- Microbiology ; Skin Diseases, Bacterial -- Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 2150-7511
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC microbiology, 11 August 2016, Vol.16(1), pp.182
    Description: Domestic combustion of biomass fuels, such as wood, charcoal, crop residue and dung causes Household Air Pollution (HAP). These inhaled particulates affect more than half of the world's population, causing respiratory problems such as infection and inflammatory lung disease. We examined whether the presence of black carbon in alveolar macrophages was associated with alterations in the lung microbiome in a Malawi population. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 44 healthy adults were sequenced using 16S rDNA amplification to assess microbial diversity, richness and relative taxa abundance. Individuals were classified as high or low particulate exposure as determined by questionnaire and the percentage of black carbon within their alveolar macrophages. Subjects in the low and high particulate groups did not differ in terms of source of fuels used for cooking or lighting. There was no difference in alpha or beta diversity by particulate group. Neisseria and Streptococcus were significantly more abundant in samples from high particulate exposed individuals, and Tropheryma was found less abundant. Petrobacter abundance was higher in people using biomass fuel for household cooking and lighting, compared with exclusive use of electricity. Healthy adults in Malawi exposed to higher levels of particulates have higher abundances of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus, Neisseria) within their lung microbiome. Domestic biomass fuel use was associated with an uncommon environmental bacterium (Petrobacter) associated with oil-rich niches.
    Keywords: Alveolar Macrophage ; Household Air Pollution ; Petrobacter ; Respiratory Microbiome ; Air Pollution, Indoor -- Analysis ; Lung -- Microbiology ; Particulate Matter -- Analysis
    E-ISSN: 1471-2180
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  • 7
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Clinical and translational gastroenterology, August 2019, Vol.10(8), pp.e00073
    Description: The composition of the small intestinal microbiota has not yet been characterized thoroughly using culture-independent techniques. We compared small intestinal microbial communities in patients with and without small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) using culture-dependent and culture-independent bacterial identification approaches. Small bowel aspirate and mucosal samples were collected from patients with suspected SIBO. The aspirates were cultured to diagnose SIBO, defined as ≥10 colony-forming units/mL coliform or ≥10 colony-forming units/mL upper aerodigestive tract bacteria. Bacteria in the aspirates and mucosa were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We compared small intestinal microbiome composition between groups with and without a culture-based SIBO diagnosis. Analysis of the aspirate and mucosal microbial communities from 36 patients revealed decreased α-diversity but no differences in β-diversity in patients with SIBO compared with those without SIBO. There were no significant differences in the relative abundance of individual taxa from the aspirates or mucosa after adjustment for false discovery rate between patients with and without SIBO. Subgroup analysis revealed significant differences in mucosal β-diversity between the coliform and upper aerodigestive tract subgroups. Relative abundances of a mucosal Clostridium spp. (P = 0.05) and an aspirate Granulicatella spp. (P = 0.02) were higher in coliform SIBO vs non-SIBO subgroups. The microbial composition and relative abundance of multiple taxa significantly differed in the mucosal and aspirate specimens. Culture-based results of small bowel aspirates do not correspond to aspirate microbiota composition but may be associated with species richness of the mucosal microbiota.
    E-ISSN: 2155-384X
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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