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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Jan 15, 2014, Vol.468-469, p.642(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.047 Byline: Yan Zhang, Hongmei Zheng, Brian D. Fath, Hong Liu, Zhifeng Yang, Gengyuan Liu, Meirong Su Abstract: If cities are considered as "superorganisms", then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an "urban disease". It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input-output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input-output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input-output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban "diseases". Article History: Received 16 May 2013; Revised 8 August 2013; Accepted 17 August 2013 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: Simon James Pollard
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, August 2013, Vol.59, pp.600-613
    Description: The evaluation of ecosystem health in urban clusters will help establish effective management that promotes sustainable regional development. To standardize the application of emergy synthesis and set pair analysis (EM–SPA) in ecosystem health assessment, a procedure for using EM–SPA models was established in this paper by combining the ability of emergy synthesis to reflect health status from a biophysical perspective with the ability of set pair analysis to describe extensive relationships among different variables. Based on the EM–SPA model, the relative health levels of selected urban clusters and their related ecosystem health patterns were characterized. The health states of three typical Chinese urban clusters – Jing-Jin-Tang, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta – were investigated using the model. The results showed that the health status of the Pearl River Delta was relatively good; the health for the Yangtze River Delta was poor. As for the specific health characteristics, the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban clusters were relatively strong in Vigor, Resilience, and Urban ecosystem service function maintenance, while the Jing-Jin-Tang was relatively strong in organizational structure and environmental impact. Guidelines for managing these different urban clusters were put forward based on the analysis of the results of this study.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Health Pattern ; Chinese Urban Cluster ; Emergy ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 January 2014, Vol.468-469, pp.642-653
    Description: If cities are considered as “superorganisms”, then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an “urban disease”. It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input–output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input–output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input–output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input–output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban “diseases”.
    Keywords: Beijing ; Ecological Network ; Physical Input–Output Table ; Urban Ecology ; Urban Metabolism ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Cleaner Production, 01 December 2017, Vol.168, pp.1425-1435
    Description: With the increasing scale and scope of global trade, the magnitude of the CO flows embodied in goods and services through international trade has aroused great concern among researchers and governments. In this study, we established a global network model of CO transfers from 2001 to 2010 using ecological network analysis and data from the World Input-Output Database for 40 selected countries whose GDP accounted for more than 85% of the total global GDP. Based on the utility analysis, we determined the ecological relationships among the countries involved in the global trade network and their changes during the study period. The analysis revealed that competition and exploitation/control relationships dominated the global network, with each accounting for more than 40% of the total relationships throughout the study period; mutualism accounted for the smallest proportion (less than 4%). More than 80% of the competition and 75% of the exploitation/control relationships were within Europe or involved flows from Europe to North America or Asia. Finland, France, Japan, Greece, and Spain had the largest proportions of competition relationships. In Denmark, Luxembourg, Malta, and Switzerland, exploitation was dominant, whereas in Russia, Indonesia, and India, control was dominant. Our analysis identifies the key nodes of the many adverse ecological relationships within the global CO network and those with more mutual relationships. Our work provides a scientific basis for developing more ecologically sustainable national and global CO flows through trade.
    Keywords: Co2 Transfer ; Ecological Relationships ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Global Trade ; Temporal Variation ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0959-6526
    E-ISSN: 1879-1786
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Cleaner Production, 20 January 2016, Vol.112, pp.4304-4317
    Description: In this paper, we develop a spatially explicit model of carbon transfers between regions of an urban area. The carbon transfers represent the metabolic processes due to regional land use changes. We used the model to identify spatial heterogeneity in the carbon metabolic structure, functions, and relationships within the network. Data for Beijing from 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, were combined with empirical coefficients, to construct the network. We used ecological network analysis to analyze the structure and function of the network, and to determine the ecological relationships between the components of the system, their distribution, and their changes over time. The analysis revealed that carbon throughflow of the network decreased and positive relations mostly outweighed negative relations. Exploitation relationships were the dominant type in Beijing during most of the study period, particularly in the northwest before 2000, but moved towards the southeast over time, leaving competition relationships with losses of benefits dominant in the northwest. Mutualism relationships with mainly beneficial carbon flows were dominant in the southeast, increasing in frequency in this region throughout the study period. The results provide a theoretical basis for planning adjustments to the city's structure to achieve low-carbon goals.
    Keywords: Urban Metabolism ; Carbon Emission ; Carbon Sequestration ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Spatial Analysis ; Ecological Relationships ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0959-6526
    E-ISSN: 1879-1786
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied Energy, 15 January 2017, Vol.186, pp.96-114
    Description: In recent years, news of “cancer villages” in the Huaihe River Basin filled front and back pages of newspapers and generated elevated concern among readers. This study aims to understand the relationship between the “cancer villages” and the “large cities” around them. A gravity model is constructed to analyze the correlation between “big cities” and “cancer villages” in terms of indices involving economic connections and pollution frequency. Direct and indirect environmental relationships between large cities and “cancer villages” are analyzed using ecological network analysis, in particular the utility analysis method. Results of the pollution-utility analysis showed that cities distant from “cancer villages” can also affect the county through indirect connections. Based on the pollution utility relationship, we found that “cancer villages” both affect and are affected by cities through indirect feedback relationships. It can be inferred that “cancer villages” have a high incidence of malignant disease not only because of the pollution from its surrounding cities but also because of the influence of far-away cities through a network of interactions. In this way, the pollution of “cancer villages” may be heightened with harmful consequences to population health. Considering these indirect connections, not all of the “cancer villages” are able to reduce their pollution by transferring it to another city or county because it can return through indirect pathways. The best approach would be to lower the pollution generation in the first place in order to prevent its impacts, as well as to at least partially mitigate them through more effective medical care.
    Keywords: Cancer Villages ; City ; Huaihe River Basin ; Gravity Model ; Utility Analysis ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0306-2619
    E-ISSN: 1872-9118
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