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  • Liu, Hsi  (5)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, December 2013, Vol.19(12), pp.2058-60
    Description: To the Editor: In 2012, the World Health Organization launched plans for a second campaign to eradicate the neglected tropical disease, yaws (1). The first campaign, conducted during the mid-20th century, was tremendously successful in terms of treatment and reduced the number of cases by 95%. However, it failed to eradicate the disease, and when local efforts to prevent new cases proved insufficient, yaws resurged in some areas. Comments on the new yaws eradication campaign have emphasized the need for sustained support and resources. Here we draw attention to an additional concern that could impede yaws eradication efforts.
    Keywords: Africa ; World Health Organization ; Bacteria ; Eradication ; Nonhuman Primates ; Pallidum ; Pertenue ; Syphilis ; Treponeme ; Yaws ; Zoonoses ; Disease Reservoirs ; Monkey Diseases -- Transmission ; Primates -- Microbiology ; Treponemal Infections -- Veterinary ; Yaws -- Transmission
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(11), p.e0143100
    Description: The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with its goal to eradicate yaws by 2020.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: 2015, Vol.9(3), p.e0003637
    Description: There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium ( Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue ) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti- T . pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T . pallidum -infected olive baboons ( Papio anubis ) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T . pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T . pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. ; The success of any disease eradication campaign depends on considering possible non-human reservoirs of the disease. Although the first report of . infection in baboons was published in the 1970’s and the zoonotic potential was demonstrated by inoculation of a West African simian strain into humans, nonhuman primates have not yet been considered as a possible reservoir for re-emerging yaws in Africa. Simian strains are genetically most closely related to the strains that cause yaws in humans. The identification of baboons as a reservoir for human infection in Africa would be revolutionary and aid important aspects to yaws eradication programs. Reliable serological tests and a useful standardized test algorithm for the screening of wild baboon populations are essential for studying potential transmission events between monkeys and humans.
    Keywords: Research Article
    ISSN: 19352727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 4
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: EBioMedicine, September 2016, Vol.11, pp.85-90
    Description: Recently, the World Health Organization launched a campaign to eradicate the tropical disease yaws, caused by the bacterium subsp. ; however, for decades researchers have questioned whether flies act as a vector for the pathogen that could facilitate transmission. A total of 207 fly specimens were trapped in areas of Africa in which . -induced skin ulcerations are common in wild baboons; 88 flies from Tarangire National Park and 119 from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania were analyzed by PCR for the presence of . DNA. We report that in the two study areas, . DNA was found in 17–24% of wild-caught flies of the order Diptera. Treponemal DNA sequences obtained from many of the flies match sequences derived from nearby baboon . strains, and one of the fly species with an especially high prevalence of . DNA, , has previously been shown to transmit yaws in an experimental setting. Our results raise the possibility that flies play a role in yaws transmission; further research is warranted, given how important understanding transmission is for the eradication of this disfiguring disease. The discovery of DNA on necrophagous flies in Africa supports historical reports on possible transmission of the bacterium by flies as a mechanical vector. The bacterium (subsp. ) causes human yaws, which is currently subject to eradication efforts. It has been shown that African nonhuman primates are also found to be infected with . strains that are closely related to human yaws causing strains. The ecology of . infection in primates is not yet fully understood and intra- and interspecies transmission pathways, apart from skin-to-skin contact in humans, are largely unknown.
    Keywords: Treponema Pallidum ; Dipteria ; Yaws ; Nonhuman Primates ; Transmission ; Biology
    ISSN: 2352-3964
    E-ISSN: 2352-3964
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