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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2015, Vol.88, p.430(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.05.026 Byline: Runa S. Boeddinghaus, Naoise Nunan, Doreen Berner, Sven Marhan, Ellen Kandeler Abstract: In heterogeneous environments such as soil it is imperative to understand the spatial relationships between microbial communities, microbial functioning and microbial habitats in order to predict microbial services in managed grasslands. Grassland land-use intensity has been shown to affect the spatial distribution of soil microorganisms, but so far it is unknown whether this is transferable from one geographic region to another. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities involved in C-, N- and P-cycling, together with physico-chemical soil properties in 18 grassland sites differing in their land-use intensity in two geographic regions: the Hainich National Park in the middle of Germany and the Swabian Alb in south-west Germany. Enzyme activities associated with the C- and N-cycles, namely [beta]-glucosidase, xylosidase and chitinase, organic carbon (C.sub.org), total nitrogen (N.sub.t), extractable organic carbon, and mineral nitrogen (N.sub.min) were higher in the Swabian Alb (Leptosols) than in the Hainich National Park (primarily Stagnosols). There was a negative relationship between bulk density and soil properties such as microbial biomass (C.sub.mic, N.sub.mic), urease, C.sub.org, and N.sub.t. The drivers (local abiotic soil properties, spatial separation) of the enzyme profiles ([beta]-glucosidase, chitinase, xylosidase, phosphatase, and urease) were determined through a spatial analysis of the within site variation of enzyme profiles and abiotic properties, using the Procrustes rotation test. The test revealed that physical and chemical properties showed more spatial pattern than the enzyme profiles. [beta]-glucosidase, chitinase, xylosidase, phosphatase, and urease activities were related to local abiotic soil properties, but showed little spatial correlation. Semivariogram modeling revealed that the ranges of spatial autocorrelation of all measured variables were site specific and not related to region or to land-use intensity. Nevertheless, land-use intensity changed the occurrence of spatial patterns measurable at the plot scale: increasing land-use intensity led to an increase in detectable spatial patterns for abiotic soil properties on Leptosols. The conclusion of this study is that microbial biomass and functions in grassland soils do not follow general spatial distribution patterns, but that the spatial distribution is site-specific and mainly related to the abiotic properties of the soils. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Soil Biology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany (b) CNRS, Institute of Ecology and Environmental Science, Campus AgroParisTech, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France Article History: Received 22 July 2014; Revised 27 May 2015; Accepted 28 May 2015
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology – Chemical Properties ; Soil Microbiology – Analysis ; Soils – Chemical Properties ; Soils – Analysis ; Hydrolases – Chemical Properties ; Hydrolases – Analysis ; Grasslands – Chemical Properties ; Grasslands – Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2015, Vol.88, pp.430-440
    Description: In heterogeneous environments such as soil it is imperative to understand the spatial relationships between microbial communities, microbial functioning and microbial habitats in order to predict microbial services in managed grasslands. Grassland land-use intensity has been shown to affect the spatial distribution of soil microorganisms, but so far it is unknown whether this is transferable from one geographic region to another. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities involved in C-, N- and P-cycling, together with physico-chemical soil properties in 18 grassland sites differing in their land-use intensity in two geographic regions: the Hainich National Park in the middle of Germany and the Swabian Alb in south-west Germany. Enzyme activities associated with the C- and N-cycles, namely β-glucosidase, xylosidase and chitinase, organic carbon (C ), total nitrogen (N ), extractable organic carbon, and mineral nitrogen (N ) were higher in the Swabian Alb (Leptosols) than in the Hainich National Park (primarily Stagnosols). There was a negative relationship between bulk density and soil properties such as microbial biomass (C , N ), urease, C , and N . The drivers (local abiotic soil properties, spatial separation) of the enzyme profiles (β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylosidase, phosphatase, and urease) were determined through a spatial analysis of the within site variation of enzyme profiles and abiotic properties, using the Procrustes rotation test. The test revealed that physical and chemical properties showed more spatial pattern than the enzyme profiles. β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylosidase, phosphatase, and urease activities were related to local abiotic soil properties, but showed little spatial correlation. Semivariogram modeling revealed that the ranges of spatial autocorrelation of all measured variables were site specific and not related to region or to land-use intensity. Nevertheless, land-use intensity changed the occurrence of spatial patterns measurable at the plot scale: increasing land-use intensity led to an increase in detectable spatial patterns for abiotic soil properties on Leptosols. The conclusion of this study is that microbial biomass and functions in grassland soils do not follow general spatial distribution patterns, but that the spatial distribution is site-specific and mainly related to the abiotic properties of the soils.
    Keywords: Biogeography ; Nutrient Cycles ; Enzyme Activities ; Physico-Chemical Soil Properties ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, April 2014, Vol.71, pp.21-30
    Description: Temporal dynamics create unique and often ephemeral conditions that can influence soil microbial biogeography at different spatial scales. This study investigated the relation between decimeter to meter spatial variability of soil microbial community structure, plant diversity, and soil properties at six dates from April through November. We also explored the robustness of these interactions over time. An historically unfertilized, unplowed grassland in southwest Germany was selected to characterize how seasonal variability in the composition of plant communities and substrate quality changed the biogeography of soil microorganisms at the plot scale (10 m × 10 m). Microbial community spatial structure was positively correlated with the local environment, i.e. physical and chemical soil properties, in spring and autumn, while the density and diversity of plants had an additional effect in the summer period. Spatial relationships among plant and microbial communities were detected only in the early summer and autumn periods when aboveground biomass increase was most rapid and its influence on soil microbial communities was greatest due to increased demand by plants for nutrients. Individual properties exhibited varying degrees of spatial structure over the season. Differential responses of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial communities to seasonal shifts in soil nutrients were detected. We concluded that spatial distribution patterns of soil microorganisms change over a season and that chemical soil properties are more important controlling factors than plant density and diversity. Finer spatial resolution, such as the mm to cm scale, as well as taxonomic resolution of microbial groups, could help determine the importance of plant species density, composition, and growth stage in shaping microbial community composition and spatial patterns.
    Keywords: Microbial Community Composition ; Spatial Patterns ; Grassland Soils ; Plfas ; Mantel Statistic ; Variogram ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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