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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Marschner, Horst  (15)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1996, Vol.186(2), pp.361-369
    Description: The response of carbohydrate metabolism in 3-year-old Norway spruce plants to an increased amount of nitrogen supply to a N-poor forest soil was investigated in a pot experiment. After 7 months of treatment we found a decreased amount of starch in both needles and roots, together with decreased amounts of sucrose in needles of those plants grown under an enhanced inorganic N supply. In addition, the activity and the protein amount of the anaplerotic enzyme phospho enol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the activity of NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) were clearly increased. The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and the pool size of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP) were not affected by high supply of inorganic N. These data indicate a shift of carbon flow from starch formation towards an enhanced provision of carbon skeletons for N assimilation and shoot growth. In parallel, we found decreased contents of fungus-specific compounds (ergosterol, mannitol, trehalose) in roots, which are indicators of a decreased colonization by ectomycorrhizal fungi, probably as a result of a changed allocation and partitioning of photoassimilates due to an increased N supply.
    Keywords: ectomycorrhiza ; fungus-specific compounds ; isocitrate dehydrogenase ; nitrogen ; Picea abies ; phosphopyruvate carboxylase
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1996, Vol.184(2), pp.291-298
    Description: During a seven-month period the effect of different nitrogen (N) availability in soil on growth and nutrient uptake was studied in three-year-old Norway spruce ( Picea abies [L.] Karst.) trees. The plants were grown in pots on N-poor forest soil supplied with various amounts and forms (inorganic and organic) of N. Increasing supply of inorganic N (as NH 4 NO 3 ) increased the formation of new shoots and shoot dry weight. The root/shoot dry weight ratio of new growth was drastically decreased from 1.6 in plants without N supply to 0.5 in plants supplied with high levels of NH 4 NO 3 . This decrease in root/shoot dry weight ratio was associated with distinct changes in root morphology in favour of shorter and thicker roots. The addition of keratin as organic N source did neither affect growth nor root morphology of the trees. The amount of N taken up by plants was closely related to the supply of inorganic N, and trees supplied with highest levels of NH 4 NO 3 also had the highest N contents in the dry matter of needles and roots. In contrast, N contents in needles of trees grown without additional N, or with keratin supply, were in the deficiency range. Supply of NH 4 NO 3 decreased the contents of phosphate (P) and potassium (K) and therefore markedly increased N/P and N/K ratios in the needles. On the other hand, the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) in the needles were increased in the plants supplied with inorganic N, suggesting high soil availability and promotion of uptake of these divalent cations by high nitrate uptake. The observed effects on root/shoot dry weight ratio, root morphology, and mineral nutrient composition of the needles indicated that high inorganic N supply may increase above-ground productivity but at the same time decrease the tolerance of trees against soil-borne (e.g. deficiency of other mineral nutrients) stress factors.
    Keywords: foliar nutrient contents ; nitrogen ; Picea abies ; root growth ; root morphology ; root/shoot ratio
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    In: New Phytologist, November 1991, Vol.119(3), pp.397-404
    Description: To study phosphorus (P) depletion and soil pH changes at the root–soil interface (rhizosphere) and at the hyphaesoil interface, mycorrhizal and non‐mycorrhizal white clover ( L.) plants were grown for 7 wk in two sterilized soils (Luvisol and Cambisol) in pots comprising five compartments: a central one for root growth, two adjacent compartments, separated from the central compartment by a nylon net of 30 μm mesh size, for growth of vesicular‐arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal [ (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe] hyphae (hyphal compartments), and two outer compartments, separated from the hyphal compartments by a 0.45 μm membrane, which neither roots nor hyphae could penetrate (bulk soil compartments). Phosphorus was supplied as Ca(HPO) at a rate of 50 mg P kg soil in the root compartment and 150 mg P kg soil in the hyphal and bulk soil compartments. Nitrogen was supplied as (NH)SO at the rate of 300 mg N kg soil uniformly to all compartments. In both soils, shoot dry weight and P uptake were much higher in mycorrhizal plants compared with non‐mycorrhizal plants. Hyphae of VA mycorrhizal fungi contributed 70% (Cambisol) or 80% (Luvisol) to total P uptake of mycorrhizal plants. In the hyphal compartments, concentrations of both HO‐extractable soil P (Cambisol and Luvisol) and NaHCO‐extractable soil P (Luvisol) were decreased drastically. Soil P depletion profiles developed not only at the root‐soil interface (rhizosphere), but also at the hyphae‐soil interface and extended several millimetres from the hyphae surface into the soil. Likewise, the soil pH was decreased at the root‐soil interface, in the hyphal compartment and also at the hyphae‐soil interface. The results demonstrate that, similarly to roots, hyphae of VA mycorrhizal fungi have the ability to form a P depletion zone and a zone of altered pH in the adjacent soil. Thus, as well as at the root‐soil interface, soil conditions at the hyphae–soil interface may also differ considerably from conditions in the bulk soil.
    Keywords: Hyphae–Soil Interface Hyphosphere ; Phosphorus ; Soil Ph ; White Clover ; Va Mycorrhiza
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1991, Vol.136(1), pp.49-57
    Description: White clover ( Trifolium repens L.) plants were grown in a calcareous soil in pots with three compartments, a central one for root growth and two outer ones for growth of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal ( Glomus mosseae [Nicol. & Gerd.] Gerdemann & Trappe) hyphae (hyphal compartments). Phosphorus (P) was applied at three levels (0, 20 and 50 mg kg −1 soil) in the outer compartments in mycorrhizal treatments. Root and shoot dry weight were increased in mycorrhizal plants with hyphal access to outer compartments. Growth of the mycorrhizal hyphae in the outer compartments was not significantly affected by variation in P level in these compartments. However, both concentration and amount of P in roots and shoots sharply increased with increasing P supply in the outer (hyphal) compartments. With increasing P levels the calculated delivery of P by the hyphae from the outer compartments increased from 34% to 90% of total P uptake. Hyphal access to the outer compartments also significantly increased both concentration and quantity of Cu in the plants. The calculated delivery of Cu by the hyphae from the outer compartments ranged from 53% to 62% of total Cu uptake, irrespective of the P levels and the amounts of P taken up and transported by the hyphae. However, the distribution of Cu over roots and shoots was largely dependent on P levels. With increase in P level in the outer compartments the calculated hyphal contribution to the total amount of Cu in the shoots increased from 12% to 58%, but decreased in the roots from 75% to 46%. In conclusion, uptake and transport by VA-mycorrhizal hyphae may contribute substantially not only to P nutrition, but also to Cu nutrition of the host.
    Keywords: copper ; Glomus mosseae ; hyphal uptake ; phosphate ; Trifolium repens ; VA-mycorrhiza ; white clover
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1991, Vol.136(1), pp.41-48
    Description: To examine the influence of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi on phosphorus (P) depletion in the rhizosphere, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) were grown for seven weeks in a sterilized calcareous soil in pots with three compartments, a central one for root growth and two outer ones for hyphae growth. Compartmentation was accomplished by a 30-μm nylon net. The root compartment received a uniform level of P (50 mg kg −1 soil) in combination with low or high levels of P (50 or 150 mg kg −1 soil) in the hyphal compartments. Plants were inoculated with Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe or remained uninfected. Mycorrhizal inoculation doubled P concentration in shoot and root, and increased dry weight, especially of the shoot, irrespective of P levels. Mycorrhizal contribution accounted for 76% of total P uptake at the low P level and 79% at the high P level, and almost all of this P was delivered by the hyphae from the outer compartment. In the non-mycorrhizal plants, the depletion of NaHCO-extractable P (Olsen-P) extended about 1 cm into the outer compartment, but in the mycorrhizal plants a uniform P depletion zone extended up to 11.7 cm (the length of the hyphal compartment) from the root surface. In the outer compartment, the mycorrhizal hyphae length density was high (2.5–7 m cm soil) at the various distances (0–11.7 cm) from the root surface. Uptake rate of P by mycorrhizal hyphae was in the range of 3.3–4.3×10 mol s cm.
    Keywords: calcareous soil ; hyphal uptake ; phosphate ; VA-mycorrhiza ; white clover
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 10/1996, Vol.186(2), pp.361-369
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde, February 1996, Vol.159(1), pp.11-21
    Description: Although per growing season nutrient uptake of adequately growing forest trees is less than the nutrient uptake of annual crop species, nutrient uptake per unit root length in trees is considerable. Because of high heterogeneity of soil conditions and root growth in forest soils, modelling of uptake processes is even more difficult for forest than for crop stands. Detailed studies show that white lips of growing tree roots have a high nutrient uptake capacity. However, most root tips are usually colonised by mycorrhizal fungi. These fungi can participate substantially in tree nutrient uptake, in particular in the utilisation of organically‐bound phosphorus and nitrogen in soils. Mycorrhizal hyphae, root tips, and older root zones can all absorb water, but their actual contribution is difficult to assess. In this review, experimental results from our laboratory and literature data are used to describe the potential activity of tree roots and mycorrhizas in nutrient and water uptake. Methodology for measurements must be developed to quantify at different forest sites the actual contribution of mycorrhizas and different root parts. Nährstoff‐ und Wasseraufnahme durch Wurzeln von Waldbäumen Der jährliche Nährstoffbedarf gut wachsender Waldbestände ist geringer als der Nährstoffbedarf von Kulturpflanzen, aber immer noch so erheblich, daß Wurzeln von Waldbäumen eine hohe Nährstoffaufnahme‐kapazität haben müssen. Die Nährstoffkonzentrationen in der Bodenlösung sind im Wald üblicherweise geringer als auf Ackerland. Vor allem sind jedoch sowohl das Nährstoffangebot als auch das Wurzelwachstum auf Waldstandorten großen räumlichen und zeitlichen Schwankungen unterworfen. Die intensive Nährstoff‐ und Wasseraufnahme durch nicht verbraunte, wachsende Wurzelspitzen von Waldbäumen ist experimentell gut untersucht. Die meisten Wurzelspitzen, insbesondere von Koniferenwurzeln, sind jedoch durch Ektomykorrhizapilze besiedelt. Anhand von eigenen Versuchsergebnissen und Literaturbeispielen wird im vorliegenden Artikel gezeigt, daß die Pilze eine große Rolle bei der Nährstoffversorgung des Baumes übernehmen können, insbesondere bei der Verwertung organischer Nährstoffquellen.
    ISSN: 0044-3263
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    In: Canadian Journal of Botany (Revue canadienne de botanique), 1997, Vol.75(5), pp.723-729
    Description: The influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae , on the adverse effects of soil compaction on growth and phosphorus (P) uptake of red clover was studied in a model experiment. The pots used in the experiment had three compartments, a central one with a soil bulk density of 1.3g∙cm 3 and two outer compartments with three different levels of soil bulk density (1.3, 1.6, or 1.8g∙cm 3 ). The soil in the outer compartments was fertilized with P and was either freely accessible to roots and hyphae, or separated by nets and accessible to hyphae only. At a soil bulk density of 1.3g∙cm 3 , mycorrhizal plants did not absorb more P than nonmycorrhizal plants except when access of roots to the outer compartments was restricted by nets. At high soil bulk density, root growth was drastically decreased. However, hyphae of G . mosseae absorbed P even from highly compacted soil, and induced a P-depletion zone of about 30mm from the root surface. In consequence, at higher soil bulk density shoot P concentration and the total amount of P in the shoot were higher in mycorrhizal than in nonmycorrhizal plants. This experiment showed that hyphae of G . mosseae are more efficient in obtaining P from compacted soil than mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal roots of red clover. Key words : arbuscular mycorrhiza, phosphorus, red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.), soil bulk density, soil compaction.
    Description: l'aide d'un modle exprimental, les auteurs ont tudi l'influence d'un champignon mycorhizien arbusculaire, le Glomus mosseae , sur les effets ngatifs de la compaction du sol spar rapport la croissance et la nutrition en phosphore (P) du trfle rouge. Les pots utiliss pour l'exprience ont trois compartiments; le compartiment central contient du sol avec une densit de masse (bulk density) de 1,3g∙cm 3 et les deux compartiments externes du sol avec trois densits de masses diffrentes (1,3, 1,6 ou 1,8g∙cm 3 ). Le sol dans les compartiments externes est fertilis avec P et est librement accessible aux racines et aux hyphes, ou est spar par un filet, ne le rendant accessible qu'aux hyphes. Avec une densit de masse de 1,3g∙cm 3 , les plantes mycorhiziennes n'absorbent pas plus de P que les plantes non-mycorhiziennes, sauf lorsque l'accs au compartiment est empch par les filets. Les densits de masse leves rduisent drastiquement la croissance des racines. Cependant, les hyphes du G . mosseae absorbent du P mme partir des sols fortement compacts, et induisent un puisement en P dans un rayon de 30mm autour de la surface racinaire. Consquemment, aux densits de masse les plus leves, la teneur en P et la quantit totale de P dans la tige sont suprieures chez les plantes mycorhizes comparativement aux plantes non-mycorhizes. Cette exprience montre que les hyphes du G . mosseae sont plus efficaces pour l'obtention du P partir de sols compacts que les racines, mycorhizes ou non, du trfle rouge. Mots cls : mycorhizes arbusculaires, phosphore, trfle rouge ( Trifolium pratense L.), densit de masse du sol, compaction du sol. [Traduit par la rdaction]
    Keywords: Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Trifolium Pratense ; Bulk Density ; Soil Compaction ; Roots ; Nutrient Uptake ; Shoots ; Hyphae ; Phosphorus ; Glomus Mosseae ; Soil Density ; Growth;
    ISSN: 0008-4026
    E-ISSN: 1480-3305
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 01 January 1995, Vol.15(3-4), pp.257-270
    Description: Colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can greatly increase the plant uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen. The most prominent contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to plant growth is due to uptake of nutrients by extraradical mycorrhizal hyphae. Quantification of hyphal...
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Hyphae ; Hyphosphere ; Nitrate ; Organic Nutrient Sources ; Phosphate ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0738-8551
    E-ISSN: 1549-7801
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  • 10
    In: Experimental Agriculture, 1992, Vol.28(4), pp.433-442
    Description: SUMMARY Inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) improved growth of chick-pea ( Cicer arielinum L.) and doubled phosphorus (P) uptake at low and intermediate levels of P fertilization in a pot experiment on sterilized low-P calcareous soil. In field experiments at Tel Hadya, northern Syria, growth, shoot P concentration and seed yield of spring-sown chickpea remained unaffected by inoculation with VAMF or by P fertilization. The mycorrhizal infection of chickpea was high (approximately 75% of root length mycorrhizal at the flowering stage) irrespective of inoculation with VAMF or P fertilization and may ensure efficient P uptake under field conditions.
    Keywords: Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Phosphorus Fertilizers ; Calcareous Soils ; Cicer Arietinum ; Soil Fungi ; Nutrient Uptake ; Soil Inoculation ; Growth;
    ISSN: 0014-4797
    E-ISSN: 1469-4441
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