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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(10), p.6727
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, produces a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) which terminates in N-acetyllactosamine. This glycoform can be further extended by the addition of a single sialic acid residue to the terminal galactose moiety. H. ducreyi does not synthesize sialic acid, which must be acquired from the host during infection or from the culture medium when the bacteria are grown in vitro. However, H. ducreyi does not have genes that are highly homologous to the genes encoding known bacterial sialic acid transporters. In this study, we identified the sialic acid transporter by screening strains in a library of random transposon mutants for those mutants that were unable to add sialic acid to N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS. Mutants that reacted with the monoclonal antibody 3F11, which recognizes the terminal lactosamine structure, and lacked reactivity with the lectin Maackia amurensis agglutinin, which recognizes alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid, were further characterized to demonstrate that they produced a N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS by silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analyses. The genes interrupted in these mutants were mapped to a four-gene cluster with similarity to genes encoding bacterial ABC transporters. Uptake assays using radiolabeled sialic acid confirmed that the mutants were unable to transport sialic acid. This study is the first report of bacteria using an ABC transporter for sialic acid uptake.
    Keywords: Transposons ; Galactose ; N-Acetyllactosamine ; Monoclonal Antibodies ; ABC Transporter ; Chancroid ; Agglutinins ; Lectins ; Infection ; Gel Electrophoresis ; Sialic Acids ; Lipooligosaccharides ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Genetics and Evolution ; Bacteria ; Microorganisms & Parasites;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
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  • 2
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2005, Vol. 187(13), p.4627
    Description: In 1995, the Institute for Genomic Research completed the genome sequence of a rough derivative of Haemophilus influenzae serotype d, strain KW20. Although extremely useful in understanding the basic biology of H. influenzae, these data have not provided significant insight into disease caused by nontypeable H. influenzae, as serotype d strains are not pathogens. In contrast, strains of nontypeable H. influenzae are the primary pathogens of chronic and recurrent otitis media in children. In addition, these organisms have an important role in acute otitis media in children as well as other respiratory diseases. Such strains must therefore contain a gene repertoire that differs from that of strain Rd. Elucidation of the differences between these genomes will thus provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of nontypeable H. influenzae. The genome of a representative nontypeable H. influenzae strain, 86-028NP, isolated from a patient with chronic otitis media was therefore sequenced and annotated. Despite large regions of synteny with the strain Rd genome, there are large rearrangements in strain 86-028NP's genome architecture relative to the strain Rd genome. A genomic island similar to an island originally identified in H. influenzae type b is present in the strain 86-028NP genome, while the mu-like phage present in the strain Rd genome is absent from the strain 86-028NP genome. Two hundred eighty open reading frames were identified in the strain 86-028NP genome that were absent from the strain Rd genome. These data provide new insight that complements and extends the ongoing analysis of nontypeable H. influenzae virulence determinants.
    Keywords: Bacterial Genetics ; Genetics and Evolution;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 3
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(3), p.1635
    Description: Haemophilus influenzae is considered a nonmotile organism that expresses neither flagella nor type IV pili, although H. influenzae strain Rd possesses a cryptic pilus locus. We demonstrate here that the homologous gene cluster pilABCD in an otitis media isolate of nontypeable H. influenzae strain 86-028NP encodes a surface appendage that is highly similar, structurally and functionally, to the well-characterized subgroup of bacterial pili known as type IV pili. This gene cluster includes a gene (pilA) that likely encodes the major subunit of the heretofore uncharacterized H. influenzae-expressed type IV pilus, a gene with homology to a type IV prepilin peptidase (pilD) as well as two additional uncharacterized genes (pilB and pilC). A second gene cluster (comABCDEF) was also identified by homology to other pil or type II secretion system genes. When grown in chemically defined medium at an alkaline pH, strain 86-028NP produces approximately 7-nm-diameter structures that are near polar in location. Importantly, these organisms exhibit twitching motility. A mutation in the pilA gene abolishes both expression of the pilus structure and the twitching phenotype, whereas a mutant lacking ComE, a Pseudomonas PilQ homologue, produced large appendages that appeared to be membrane bound and terminated in a slightly bulbous tip. These latter structures often showed a regular pattern of areas of constriction and expansion. The recognition that H. influenzae possesses a mechanism for twitching motility will likely profoundly influence our understanding of H. influenzae-induced diseases of the respiratory tract and their sequelae.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 4
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2004, Vol. 72(2), p.1143
    Description: The nucleotide sequence of pNAD1, a plasmid from Haemophilus ducreyi identified on the basis of its ability to confer NAD independence on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and H. influenzae, has been determined. In addition to containing the nadV gene, the plasmid contains homologues of the rstR and rstA genes, genes encoding repressor and replication proteins, respectively, in the Vibrio CTX phi and the Vibrio RS1 element, suggesting a single-stranded bacteriophage origin for pNAD1. Tandem copies of the plasmid are integrated into the H. ducreyi 35000HP genome.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Vibrio ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Vibrio ; Genomes ; Nucleotide Sequence ; Plasmids ; Phages ; Genomes ; Nucleotide Sequence ; Plasmids ; Phages ; Nadv Gene ; Rstr Gene ; Rsta Gene ; Nadv Gene ; Rstr Gene ; Rsta Gene ; Plasmids ; Structure & Sequence ; Nad ; Rs1 Element ; Nad ; Rs1 Element ; Nad ; Rs1 Element ; Nadv Gene ; Rsta Gene ; Rstr Gene;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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