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  • Neumann, Elke  (7)
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  • 1
    In: New Phytologist, May 2005, Vol.166(2), pp.601-609
    Description: •  We investigated the growth and nutrient uptake of the Lycopersicon esculentum symbiosis mycorrhiza‐defective plant mutant rmc, challenged with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal propagules, in the presence or absence of roots of the commercial wild‐type tomato cv. Golden Queen (GQ). •  Two plants shared the middle (combi) compartment of a horizontal three‐compartment split‐root pot with one part of their root system; the other part was grown separately in an outer (solo) pot. Combinations of rmc and GQ plants were grown together in soil that was either mycorrhiza‐free (–M) or prepared with AM fungal inoculum (+M). •  Surface colonization of rmc roots was strongly increased in the presence of (+M) GQ roots. AM fungal inoculation increased phosphorus uptake of GQ plants, but decreased growth and P uptake of rmc plants. Growth and P uptake of (+M) GQ plants were reduced when plants were grown in combination with rmc rather than another GQ plant. •  AM fungi in the (combi) compartment may have preferentially formed hyphae spreading infection rather than functioning in P uptake in (+M) GQ plants grown in combination with rmc. Surface colonization of (+M) rmc roots, in the presence of GQ roots, was probably established at the expense of carbohydrates from associated GQ plants. Possible reasons for a decreased P uptake of rmc plants in response to AM fungal inoculation are proposed.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Am ; Inoculum Potential ; Phosphorus P Deficiency ; Plant Defence Response ; Mutant ; Symbiosis‐Defective Plant Mutants ; Tomato
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2004, Vol.261(1), pp.245-255
    Description: The aim of the present study was to quantify the contribution of AMF to phosphorus (P) nutrition of the host plant when the P availability in the soil was limited by drought. To investigate the potential of AMF hyphae in taking up P from dry soil, mycorrhizal [+M] and nonmycorrhizal [−M] Sorghum bicolor L. plants were grown in a vertical split root system that consisted of two compartments placed upon one the other. The upper compartment was filled with well fertilised soil and the plant roots were allowed to grow into the lower compartment through a perforated bottom. The lower compartment was filled with an expanded clay substrate and nutrient solution, to supply the plants with water and all nutrients except P. The soil in the upper compartments was either dried [−W] or kept moist [+W] during a period of four weeks before harvest. The total plant P content did not differ significantly between the [−M] and the [+M] plants within the [+W] treatment. In contrast, the P content of the [+M] plants was almost twice as high as the [−M] plants when the soil in the upper compartment was dried. The concentrations of all elements except P in plant shoot tissue were sufficient for adequate plant growth. Phosphorus concentrations in the shoots of [−M/−W] plants indicated P deficiency, and these plants also had significantly lower dry matter and transpiration compared to the plants in all other treatments. From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that mycorrhizal colonisation seems to be particularly benefical to P uptake from dry soil
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus ; partial soil drying ; phosphorus uptake ; Sorghum bicolor
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2010, Vol.173(3), pp.353-359
    Description: In most plant species, nutrient uptake is facilitated upon root association with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The aim of the present experiment was to test how the form in which nitrogen (N) is supplied to the growth medium affects substrate pH, AM development, and contribution of the symbiosis to phosphorus (P) uptake from sparingly available or soluble resources. Cowpea ( L. Walp) plants inoculated or noninoculated with AM fungi ( sp.) were grown in pots with a sand substrate supplied with nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was prepared either with a high or a low concentration of soluble P, and NO‐N : NH‐N ratios of 9:1 or 5:5. The substrate supplied with low‐P nutrient solution was either or not additionally amended with ground rock phosphate. Despite a high level of root colonization, AM fungi used in the present study did not appear to increase plant availability of rock phosphate. It cannot be excluded that the ability of AM root systems to acquire P from sparingly available resources differs depending on the plant and fungal genotypes or environmental conditions. The absence from the growth substrate of P‐solubilizing microorganisms able to associate with AM mycelia might also have been a reason for this observation in our study. Increased supply of NH relative to NO improved plant P availability from rock phosphate, but also had a negative effect on the extent of AM‐fungal root colonization, irrespective of the plant P‐nutritional status. Whether increasing levels of NH can also negatively affect the functioning of the AM symbiosis in terms of plant element uptake, pathogen protection or soil‐structure stabilization deserves further investigation.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Nitrate‐To‐Ammonium Ratio ; Rock Phosphate ; Vigna Unguiculata
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Symbiosis, 2017, Vol.73(3), pp.191-200
    Description: We investigated the effect of mineral nitrogen forms on transfer of nitrogen (N) and zinc (Zn) from attached compartments to rhodes grass ( Chloris gayana ) colonised with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). After being pre-cultivated in substrates with adequate nutrient supply and either AMF inoculated (+AM) or left non-inoculated (−AM), rhodes grass was positioned adjacent to an outer compartment holding a similar substrate but applied with labelled nitrogen ( 15 N) either as ammonium (NH 4 + ) or nitrate (NO 3 − ), and a high supply of Zn (150 mg kg −1 DS). Plant roots together with fungal mycelium were either allowed to explore the outer compartment (with root access) or only mycorrhizal hyphae were allowed (without root access). Within each access treatment, biomasses of rhodes grass were not significantly affected by AMF inoculation or N form. AMF contribution to plant 15 N uptake was about double in NH 4 + compared with NO 3 − -supplied treatments while the mycorrhizal influence on plant Zn uptake was insignificant. Without root access, the shoot 15 N/Zn concentration ratio was up to ten-fold higher in +AM than –AM treatments and this ratio increase was clearly more pronounced in NH 4 + than NO 3 − -supplied treatments. In conclusion, rhodes grass in symbiosis with the tested AMF acquired more N when supplied with ammonium. Moreover, there is clear indication that although the AMF have transported both nutrients (N and Zn), N was preferentially transferred as compared to Zn. We confirmed that, while rhodes grass is not able to prevent excessive Zn uptake via roots under conditions of high Zn, mycorrhiza is able to avoid excessive Zn supply to the host plant when the fungus alone has access to contaminated patches.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Mycorrhizal nutrient uptake ; (Rhodes grass)
    ISSN: 0334-5114
    E-ISSN: 1878-7665
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Mycorrhiza, 2005, Vol.15(7), pp.533-537
    Description: This study presents a novel method for the extraction and quantification of extraradical mycelium (ERM) of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from a substrate that simulates soil better than previously used artificial growth media. Fungal compartments were constructed from small net pots with a latticed wall and filled with a mixture of glass beads and 40 μm wet sieved soil. The net pots were surrounded by a 30-μm mesh membrane through which hyphae but not roots could grow. They were inserted into soil where a Glomus intraradices (BEG 110) colonized potato plant was growing. The ERM that had grown out from roots through the membrane was successfully collected and quantified after harvest by washing out the soil/glass bead mixture through a sieve with a mesh width of 40 μm. Concentrations of P, Zn, Cu and Mn in the AMF ERM were analysed.
    Keywords: Extraction method ; Extraradical mycelium ; Fungal compartment
    ISSN: 0940-6360
    E-ISSN: 1432-1890
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Mycorrhiza, 2009, Vol.20(1), pp.13-23
    Description: Sweet potato plants were grown with or without Glomus intraradices in split-root pots with adjacent root compartments containing a soil with a low availability of phosphate. One fungal tube, from which root growth was excluded, was inserted into each root compartment. During 4 weeks before harvest, the soil moisture level in either both or only one of the two root-compartments of each pot was decreased. Controls remained well watered. Low soil moisture generally had a negative effect on the amount of extraradical mycelium of G. intraradices extracted from the fungal tubes. Sporulation in the fungal tubes was much higher compared with the soil in the root compartment, but remained unaffected by the soil moisture regime. Concentrations of P in extraradical mycelium were much lower than usually found in plants and fungi, while P concentrations in associated mycorrhizal host plant tissues were in an optimum range. This suggests efficient transfer of P from the extraradical mycelium to the host plant. Despite the negative effect of a low soil moisture regime on extraradical G. intraradices development, the symbiosis indeed contributed significantly to P uptake of plants exposed to partial rootzone drying. The possibility that extraradical arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal development was limited by P availability under dry soil conditions is discussed.
    Keywords: Extraradical mycelium ; Fungal element contents ; Glomus intraradices ; Partial rootzone drying
    ISSN: 0940-6360
    E-ISSN: 1432-1890
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Marschner9s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, Chapter 17, pp.409-472
    ISBN: 978-0-12-384905-2
    Source: ScienceDirect (Elsevier B.V.)
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