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  • Paulus, Martin P
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, June 2011, Vol.35(6), pp.1034-40
    Description: Although there are multiple indications that alcohol can alter many physiological brain functions, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), studies of the latter have generally used small- or modest-sized samples. Few investigations have yet evaluated how CBF changes after alcohol relate to subsets of subjects with elevated alcoholism risks, such as those with lower levels of response (LR) to alcohol. This study used arterial spin labeling (ASL) after alcohol administration to evaluate a large sample of healthy young men and women with low and high alcohol responses, and, thus, varying risks for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Healthy young adult social drinkers with low and high LR (N=88, 50% women) matched on demography and drinking histories were imaged with whole-brain resting ASL ~1 hour after ingesting ~3 drinks of ethanol and after a placebo beverage (i.e., 178 ASL sessions). The relationships of CBF changes from placebo to alcohol for subjects with low and high LR were evaluated. CBF increased after alcohol when compared to placebo in 5 frontal brain regions. Despite identical blood alcohol concentrations, these increases with alcohol were less prominent in individuals who required more drinks to experience alcohol-related effects (i.e., had a lower LR to alcohol). The LR group differences remained significant after covarying for recent drinking quantities. The results confirm that alcohol intake is associated with acute increases in CBF, particularly in frontal regions. Less intense CBF changes were seen in subjects with a genetically influenced characteristic, a low LR to alcohol, that relates to the future risk of heavy drinking and alcohol problems.
    Keywords: Alcohol Drinking -- Genetics ; Cerebrovascular Circulation -- Physiology ; Ethanol -- Administration & Dosage ; Regional Blood Flow -- Physiology
    ISSN: 01456008
    E-ISSN: 1530-0277
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of studies on alcohol, November 2004, Vol.65(6), pp.692-700
    Description: This study examined neural correlates of the low level of response to alcohol using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) during a challenging visual working memory task. Participants were healthy adolescents (N = 35) with a range of drinking patterns recruited from local high schools. After a minimum 5 days of abstinence from alcohol and other drugs, FMRI, neuropsychological testing and the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol were administered. Self-report of initial level of response to alcohol was significantly predicted by FMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to the visual working memory task in the right prefrontal and bilateral anterior cingulate region (12% of unique variance, p 〈 .05) and right cerebellum and parahippocampal gyrus (17% of unique variance, p 〈 .01), above and beyond effects accounted for by drinks consumed per month, age, gender and ethnicity. Young people who report having needed more alcohol to achieve specific effects during early drinking experiences show higher levels of brain response during visual working memory, perhaps suggesting less capacity to adjust cognitive processing to contextual demands.
    Keywords: Ethanol -- Administration & Dosage ; Frontal Lobe -- Drug Effects ; Memory -- Drug Effects ; Parietal Lobe -- Drug Effects ; Photic Stimulation -- Methods
    ISSN: 0096-882X
    E-ISSN: 19342683
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2017, Vol.126(5), pp.519-530
    Description: Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) engage in episodes of binge eating, marked by loss of control and eating despite fullness. Does altered reward and metabolic state contribute to BN pathophysiology? Normally, hunger increases (and satiety decreases) reward salience to regulate eating. We investigated whether BN is associated with an abnormal response in a neural circuit involved in translating taste signals into motivated behavior, when hungry and fed. Twenty-six women remitted from BN (RBN) and 22 control women (CW) were administered water and sucrose during 2 counterbalanced fMRI visits, following a 16-hr fast or a standardized breakfast. Significant Group × Condition interactions were found in the left putamen, insula, and amygdala. Post hoc analyses revealed CW were significantly more responsive to taste stimuli when hungry versus fed in the left putamen and amygdala. In contrast, RBN response did not differ between conditions. Further, RBN had greater activation in the left amygdala compared with CW when fed. Findings suggest that RBN neural response to rewarding stimuli may not be modulated by metabolic state. Data raise the possibility that disinhibited eating in BN could result from a failure to devalue food reward when fed, resulting in an exaggerated response. ; This study suggests that adults remitted from bulimia nervosa may have elevated reward-related brain activation in response to taste after having eaten. This altered neural response may underlie the tendency to eat beyond satiety that characterizes binge eating behavior.
    Keywords: Bulimia Nervosa ; Reward ; Hunger
    ISSN: 0021-843X
    E-ISSN: 1939-1846
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Translational Psychiatry, 01 August 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.1-13
    Description: Abstract Interoception, or the sensing and integration of bodily state signals, has been implicated in anorexia nervosa (AN), given that the hallmark symptoms involve food restriction and body image disturbance. Here we focus on brain response to the anticipation and experience of affective interoceptive stimuli. Women remitted from AN (RAN; N = 18) and healthy comparison women (CW; N = 26) underwent a pleasant affective touch paradigm consisting of gentle strokes with a soft brush administered to the forearm or palm during functional neuroimaging. RAN had a lower brain response relative to CW during anticipation of touch, but a greater response when experiencing touch in the right ventral mid-insula. In RAN, this reduced anticipatory response was associated with higher levels of harm avoidance. Exploratory analyses in RAN also suggested that lower response during touch anticipation was associated with greater body dissatisfaction and higher perceived touch intensity ratings. This reduced responsivity to the anticipation of pleasant affective interoceptive stimuli in association with higher harm avoidance, along with an elevated response to the experience of touch, suggests an impaired ability in AN to predict and interpret incoming physiological stimuli. Impaired interoception may thus impact one’s sense of self, thereby supporting observations of disturbed body image and avoidance of affective and social stimuli. Therapeutic approaches that help AN to better anticipate and interpret salient affective stimuli or improve tolerance of interoceptive experiences may be an important addition to current interventions.
    Keywords: Medicine
    E-ISSN: 2158-3188
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 30 June 2016, Vol.252, pp.19-25
    Description: Amphetamine, likely via action on the brain's dopaminergic systems, induces anorectic eating behavior and blunts dopaminergic midbrain activation to rewards. Past work has hypothesized that this blunted reward responsivity is a result of increasing tonic over phasic DA activity. We sought to extend past findings to sweet taste during fMRI following single-blind administration of dextroamphetamine and placebo in 11 healthy women. We hypothesized that neural response in both limbic and cognitive sweet taste circuits would mirror past work with monetary rewards by effectively blunting sweet taste reward, and ‘equalizing’ it's rewarding taste with receipt of water. Behavioral results showed that amphetamine reduced self-reported hunger (supporting the existence of amphetamine anorexia) and increased self-report euphoria. In addition, region of Interest analysis revealed significant treatment by taste interactions in the middle insula and dorsal anterior cingulate confirming the ‘equalizing’ hypothesis in the cingulate, but unlike monetary reinforcers, the insula actually evinced enhanced separation between tastes on the amphetamine day. These results suggest a divergence from prior research using monetary reinforcers when extended to primary reinforcers, and may hint that altering dopaminergic signaling in the insula and anterior cingulate may be a target for pharmacological manipulation of appetite, and the treatment of obesity.
    Keywords: Taste ; Hunger ; Fmri ; Amphetamine ; Sucrose ; Water ; Insula ; Dorsal ACC ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0925-4927
    E-ISSN: 1872-7506
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, June 2019, Vol.44(7), pp.1265-1273
    Description: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by dysregulated intake of food, which may indicate homeostatic imbalance. Critically important for homeostatic regulation is interoception, or the sensing and processing of body-relevant information. A well-documented link between avoidance of unpleasant body sensations and BN symptoms suggests that aversive interoceptive experiences may be particularly relevant to BN pathophysiology. This study examined whether individuals with a history of BN show aberrant neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli. Using a cued inspiratory breathing load paradigm, we compared women remitted from BN (RBN; n = 24; to reduce the confounding effects of active bulimic symptoms) and control women (CW; n = 25). During breathing load anticipation, the RBN group, relative to CW, showed increased activation in mid-insula, superior frontal gyrus, putamen, dorsal anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, and amygdala. However, over the course of the aversive experience, neural activation in RBN relative to CW showed an aberrant decline in most of these regions. Exploratory analyses indicated that greater activation during breathing load anticipation was associated with past bulimic symptom severity and the duration of symptom remission. An exaggerated anticipatory response and an abnormally decreasing response during aversive homeostatic perturbations may promote hallmark bulimic behaviors-binge eating, dietary restriction, and purging. Our findings support a role for homeostatic instability in BN, and these altered patterns of brain activation may serve as novel targets for pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and behavioral interventions.
    Keywords: Putamen ; Respiration ; Amygdala ; Purging ; Diet ; Eating Disorders ; Signs and Symptoms ; Bulimia ; Pharmacology ; Brain ; Frontal Gyrus ; Information Processing ; Stability ; Eating Disorders ; Bulimia Nervosa ; Remission ; Active Control ; Breathing ; Food Intake;
    ISSN: 0893133X
    E-ISSN: 1740-634X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 06/2018, Vol.3(6), pp.501-513
    Description: Interoception refers to the process by which the nervous system senses, interprets, and integrates signals originating from within the body, providing a moment-by-moment mapping of the body’s internal landscape across conscious and unconscious levels. Interoceptive signaling has been considered a component process of reflexes, urges, feelings, drives, adaptive responses, and cognitive and emotional experiences, highlighting its contributions to the maintenance of homeostatic functioning, body regulation, and survival. Dysfunction of interoception is increasingly recognized as an important component of different mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, addictive disorders, and somatic symptom disorders. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges have made it difficult for interoceptive constructs to be broadly applied in mental health research and treatment settings. In November 2016, the Laureate Institute for Brain Research organized the first Interoception Summit, a gathering of interoception experts from around the world, with the goal of accelerating progress in understanding the role of interoception in mental health. The discussions at the meeting were organized around four themes: interoceptive assessment, interoceptive integration, interoceptive psychopathology, and the generation of a roadmap that could serve as a guide for future endeavors. This review article presents an overview of the emerging consensus generated by the meeting.
    Keywords: Biomarker ; Computational Psychiatry ; Interoception ; Mental Health ; Research Domain Criteria ; Treatment;
    ISSN: 24519022
    E-ISSN: 24519030
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