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  • Perner, Henrike  (7)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 2010, Vol.122(3), pp.566-571
    Description: Flavonoids have gained much attention because of their proposed positive effects for human health. Onions are a rich source of flavonoids, consisting mainly of the major flavonols quercetin-3,4′- -diglucoside (QDG) and quercetin-4′- -monoglucoside (QMG) in the bulb and the aglycone quercetin in the outer scales. In this study, distribution of these three flavonoids was determined in 16 onion cultivars ( ) using HPLC–DAD. Three different parts of the onion bulb, the inner layers, the middle layers and the outer scales were analysed. The analysis showed varietal differences in the selected onion cultivars. The cultivars with the highest total flavonoid content were the red skinned ‘Red Baron’ and the yellow skinned cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Prilep’. The distribution of the total flavonoid content in the different parts of the onion bulb showed the following order: middle layers 〉 outer scales 〉 inner layers. In the inner layers QDG was the major flavonoid, while in the middle layers QDG and QMG were in equal amounts. In the outer scales quercetin was the major flavonoid prior to QMG.
    Keywords: Onions ; Allium Cepa ; Flavonoids ; Quercetin Glucosides ; Cultivars ; Profiling ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Scientia Horticulturae, 2011, Vol.130(3), pp.485-490
    Description: ► Three S levels, two NH :NO ratios, and AM fungi were tested on Chinese chive. ► Intermediate S was sufficient for optimal growth of . ► Increasing S concentration in the substrate increased organosulfur compounds. ► AM fungi decreased organosulfur compounds. ► Highest yield of organosulfur compounds was produced at NH :NO ratio of 50:50. Tissue concentrations of phytochemicals formed by species may be influenced by plant nutrient supply or rhizosphere microorganism activity. To test these relations, three plant nutritional factors were varied in two experiments with Chinese chive [ ]: (a) increasing sulfur concentrations in the substrate, (b) two ratios of ammonium to nitrate in supply, and (c) inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Shoot dry weight, nutrient composition (nitrate, N, P, S), and organosulfur compounds (measured indirectly as pyruvic acid) were determined. In the first experiment, the supply of intermediate sulfur compared to low sulfur supply resulted in increased shoot dry weight and pyruvic acid concentrations. A further increase in sulfur supply increased plant pyruvic acid production in the absence of effects on dry weight. In the second experiment, AM fungi hardly increased shoot dry weight, nutrient, or pyruvic acid concentrations significantly. Pyruvic acid concentration was increased at an ammonium:nitrate ratio of 50:50 compared to a ratio of 5:95, whereas shoot dry weight was not significantly different. We conclude that both, supply of surplus sulfur or supply of equal amounts of ammonium and nitrate, can contribute to the production of high amounts of health related organosulfur compounds in Chinese chive.
    Keywords: Allium Tuberosum ; Am Fungi ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Organosulfur Compounds ; Sulfur ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0304-4238
    E-ISSN: 1879-1018
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 28 May 2008, Vol.56(10), pp.3538-45
    Description: The aim of the present study was to test whether variations in the root environment affect the content of health-related organosulfur compounds, total phenolic compounds, and flavonol glycoside concentrations in onions. For this purpose, greenhouse-grown onions ( Allium cepa L.) were either inoculated with a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum or a sterile inoculum and were provided with two NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios as a nitrogen source. Onion growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization rate, sugars, and nutrient element concentrations were also quantified. The plant antioxidant activity and quercetin monoglucoside and organosulfur compound concentrations increased with dominant nitrate supply. Furthermore, mycorrhizal colonization increased the antioxidant activity and also concentrations of the major quercetin glucosides. The present study provides clear evidence that antioxidant activity, quercetin glycosides, and organosulfur compounds can be increased in sufficiently supplied onion plants by dominant nitrate supply or application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This was probably due to increased precursor production and induced defense mechanisms.
    Keywords: Mycorrhizae -- Growth & Development ; Nitrates -- Administration & Dosage ; Onions -- Chemistry ; Phenols -- Analysis ; Sulfur Compounds -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0021-8561
    E-ISSN: 15205118
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Mycorrhiza, 2007, Vol.17(5), pp.469-474
    Description: Two challenges frequently encountered in the production of ornamental plants in organic horticulture are: (1) the rate of mineralization of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from organic fertilizers can be too slow to meet the high nutrient demand of young plants, and (2) the exclusive use of peat as a substrate for pot-based plant culture is discouraged in organic production systems. In this situation, the use of beneficial soil microorganisms in combination with high quality compost substrates can contribute to adequate plant growth and flower development. In this study, we examined possible alternatives to highly soluble fertilizers and pure peat substrates using pelargonium ( Pelargonium peltatum L’Her.) as a test plant. Plants were grown on a peat-based substrate with two rates of compost addition and with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Inoculation with three different commercial AM inocula resulted in colonization rates of up to 36% of the total root length, whereas non-inoculated plants remained free of root colonization. Increasing the rate of compost addition increased shoot dry weight and shoot nutrient concentrations, but the supply of compost did not always completely meet plant nutrient demand. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the number of buds and flowers, as well as shoot P and potassium (K) concentrations, but did not significantly affect shoot dry matter or shoot N concentration. We conclude that addition of compost in combination with mycorrhizal inoculation can improve nutrient status and flower development of plants grown on peat-based substrates.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Compost ; Organic horticulture ; Pelargonium
    ISSN: 0940-6360
    E-ISSN: 1432-1890
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  • 5
    In: HortScience, 06/2006, Vol.41(3), pp.628-632
    Description: Organic horticultural production systems often are characterized by the use of beneficial soil microorganisms because the application of soluble inorganic P or N fertilizers is not endorsed. Due to the limited supply of soluble nutrients in organic production systems, nutrient deficiency may limit plant growth and yield. The sole use of peat for pot-based cultures is also discouraged in organic production systems. Therefore, we have studied viable alternatives for highly soluble fertilizers and pure peat substrates using leek [Allium ampeloprasum L. var. Porrum] as a test plant. Plants were grown on peat-based substrates with different rates of compost additions, and with and without inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Inoculation with a commercial AM fungus inoculum resulted in colonization rates of up to 70% of total root length, whereas not inoculated plants remained free of root colonization. Mycorrhizal fungus colonization increased shoot Zn and K concentrations, but did not significantly affect shoot dry matter or shoot N and P concentrations. In contrast, compost addition increased plant growth, and also increased P and K concentrations in plants. We conclude that plants with high rates of mycorrhizal colonization can be obtained on peat-based substrates, but that under these conditions plants may not consistently benefit in growth from the mycorrhizal symbiosis. In contrast, additions of compost are a possible means to improve the substrate quality in organic horticultural production. ; Includes references ; p. 628-632.
    Keywords: Zinc ; Mycorrhizal Fungi ; Allium Ampeloprasum ; Phosphorus ; Microbial Colonization ; Organic Production ; Allium Porrum ; Growing Media ; Inoculation Methods ; Nitrogen ; Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Peat ; Dry Matter Accumulation ; Nutrient Uptake ; Plant Growth ; Potassium ; Composts ; Plant Nutrition ; Leeks;
    ISSN: 0018-5345
    E-ISSN: 2327-9834
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2007, Vol.170(6), pp.762-768
    Description: In recent years, interest has grown in cultivating species with enhanced health benefits and/or distinct flavor. Concentrations of phytochemicals determining these desired characteristics may be influenced by nitrogen forms (ammonium or nitrate) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We examined these relations with the test plant bunching onion ( L.). Three different ammonium‐to‐nitrate (NH : NO) ratios were supplied in combination with or without inoculation with an AM fungus (). The plants were evaluated for dry weight, leaf number, and content of nutrients (N, NO, P, S), sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose), and organosulfur compounds (measured as pyruvic acid). The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Plants were grown on perlite amended twice a day with nutrient solution. In nonmycorrhizal plants, the application of nutrient solution with predominant NO or NHNO as N source supported adequate growth of while predominant NH supply resulted in decreased growth and occurrence of wilting symptoms. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased dry weight and leaf number of predominantly NH‐fed or NHNO‐fed plants. While shoot P concentration increased with higher NH supply, shoot N concentration increased in predominantly NH‐fed plants only. Nitrogen form and AM colonization had little effect on shoot S or sugar concentrations. The total content in organosulfur compounds was significantly affected by both, N form and AM colonization. The optimal growth condition for a high formation of organosulfur compounds in this experiment was a nutrient solution with predominant NO supply, but when supported by AM fungi, produced similar amounts of pyruvic acid in NHNO‐fed plants.
    Keywords: Am Fungi ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Organosulfur Compounds ; Pyruvic Acid
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 7
    Dissertation
    Dissertation
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerische Fakultät
    Language: English
    Description: Aufgrund seines Nährstoffaneignungsvermögens und Stimulierung des Pflanzenmetabolismus kann der Arbuskuläre Mykorrhiza (AM) Pilz im Gartenbau nutzbringend eingesetzt werden. Der Fokus der Arbeit liegt auf den Möglichkeiten des AM Pilzes a) pflanzenernährerische Probleme zu lösen, b) die Blütenbildung bei Zierpflanzen zu steigern und c) das Gesundheitspotential von Gemüse für den Menschen zu erhöhen (sekundäre Pflanzenmetaboliten). Zur Lösung pflanzenernährerischer Probleme wurden Porree, Pelargonie und Poinsettie auf Torf-Substraten mit 20% und 40% Kompostzusatz untersucht. Ferner wurde Salat auf Torf-Substrat mit drei P Behandlungen getestet: substrateigenes P, Rohphosphat und lösliches P. Frühlingszwiebeln und Schnittknoblauch wurden in Nährlösungen auf Perlit mit niedrigem, mittlerem und hohem NH4+/NO3- Verhältnis ernährt. Gemessen wurde die AM Kolonisation, die Trockenmasse und die N, P, K, S, NO3-, Mg und Zn Konzentrationen im Spross. Die Blütenbildung von Pelargonien und Poinsettien wurde auf Torf-Kompost-Substraten untersucht. Der Einfluss auf die sekundäre Metaboliten von Frühlingszwiebeln und Schnittknoblauch wurde zusammen mit drei NH4+/NO3- Verhältnissen geprüft (s.o.). Untersucht wurden Glukose, Fruktose, Saccharose, lösliche Feststoffe und organische Schwefelverbindungen (gemessen als Pyruvat). Eine AM Kolonisation konnte die Nährstoffversorgung der Pflanze verbessern und die Blütenbildung erhöhen. Jedoch profitierten die Pflanzen unter den beschriebenen experimentellen Bedingungen nicht durchgängig in ihrem Wachstum und Metaboliten vom AM Pilz. Die Zugaben von Kompost ermöglichte die Verbesserung der Substratqualität für die Nährstoffversorgung und das Pflanzenwachstum unter ökologischen Gartenbaubedingungen. Der Ertrag von gesundheitsfördernden organischen Schwefelverbindungen konnte in Abhängigkeit von der jeweiligen Allium Spezies, durch eine Variation des Ammonium/Nitrat Verhältnissen und/oder durch einen AM Effekt auf das Wachstum gesteigert werden. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can be beneficial for horticultural crops due to their nutrient acquisition properties and stimulation of the plant metabolism. The present work focuses on the prospects of AM fungi a) to solve plant nutritional problems, b) to induce flower development of ornamental plants, and c) to improve the health potential of crop plants for humans. Contribution of AM fungi to plant nutritional problems were investigated with leek, pelargonium and poinsettia plants on peat-based substrates with 20% and 40% compost additions. Moreover, lettuce plants were supplied on peat-based substrates with substrate own P, rock phosphate, or highly soluble P. Bunching onion and chinese chive were propagated on perlite in nutrient solution with low, medium and high NH4+:NO3- ratios. Mycorrhizal colonization, dry weight, and N, P, K, S, NO3-, Mg and Zn concentrations in plants were measured. Mycorrhizal effects on bud and flower development of pelargonium and poinsettia plants were investigated on peat-based compost substrates. Treatment effects on secondary metabolites in bunching onion and chinese chive were determined by exposing mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal plants to three NH4+:NO3- supply ratios. The metabolites measured were glucose, fructose, and sucrose, total soluble solids, and organosulfur compounds (measured as pyruvic acid). Colonization improved plant nutrient status and flower development. Under the described experimental conditions, however, plants did not consistently benefit in growth or plant composition from the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Additions of compost were a means of improving the substrate quality for an increased plant nutrient acquisition and plant growth in organic horticulture. The plant quality of Allium species in respect to organosulfur compounds was increased by taking the individual Allium species into consideration, their specific requirements for an optimal NH4+:NO3- supply ratio, and a possible AM effect on plant growth.
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Arbukulärer Mykorrhizapilz ; Allium Spec. ; Blütenbildung ; Nitrat ; Ökologischer Gartenbau ; Organische Schwefelverbindungen ; Pelargonie ; Poinsettie ; Rohphosphat ; Salat ; Torf-Kompost Substrat ; Allium Spec. ; Ammonium ; Arbucular Mycorrhizal Fungi ; Compost ; Flower Development ; Lettuce ; Nitrate ; Organic Horticulture ; Organosulfur Compounds ; Peat ; Pelargonium ; Poinsettia ; Rock Phosphate ; 630 Landwirtschaft ; Veterinärmedizin ; 39 Landwirtschaft ; Garten ; Ddc:630
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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