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  • Peruzzi, Lorenzo  (12)
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  • 1
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(4)
    Description: Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull’s eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species–being entirely UV-absorbing–exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors’ contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocu s flowers is discussed.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2013, Vol.299(2), pp.413-438
    Description: The genus Gagea Salisb. is the largest amongst Liliaceae, including 50–300 species. This genus can be subdivided into at least 14 sections: among them, there is the species-rich, relatively late-branching monophyletic sect. Didymobulbos . Most of species and putative hybrids within this section were included in this study for a total of about 148 accessions (corresponding to 35 taxa), almost all collected across the Euro-Mediterranean area. Thirty-seven morpho-anatomical and ontogenetic characters were considered, together with the cpDNA ( trn L– trn F IGS, psb A– trn H IGS) and nrDNA (ITS region) molecular markers. Bayesian analysis revealed the phylogenetic relationships among Didymobulbos taxa, allowing us to demonstrate new circumscriptions of critical species complexes, such as those of G. chrysantha Schult. & Schult.f., G. dubia A. Terracc. and G. granatellii (Parl.) Parl. Also the prominent role played in this section by reticulate evolution is further highlighted: many taxa, often unexpectedly, are inferred to represent hybrids (31 % of investigated taxa). The division into series cannot be maintained as we found extensive molecular evidence of hybridization between them. A new taxonomic setting for Gagea sect. Didymobulbos is proposed, and five new species are described.
    Keywords: Gagea ; Liliaceae ; ITS ; Karyology ; Networks ; Phylogeny ; Taxonomy ; L–F IGS ; A–H IGS
    ISSN: 0378-2697
    E-ISSN: 1615-6110
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2015, Vol.301(1), pp.309-325
    Description: The taxonomically complicated Crocus series Verni is characterized by high intra- and interspecific variability of karyotypes (2 n  = 8–23). With the aim to get more insights into complex karyotype evolution and to clarify the taxonomy of this group, we combined morphological (twelve characters), molecular (chloroplast DNA: trn L– trn F, ndh F; nuclear DNA: ITS, pCOSAt103 ) and karyological analyses. Samples of different populations of C. etruscus , C. ilvensis , C. kosaninii , C. tommasinianus , C. vernus sensu lato and C. longiflorus (series Longiflori ) were analyzed. Quantitative karyotype parameters were calculated for all taxa involved based on the available literature. For the taxon traditionally known as C. vernus , the analyses suggest that it should be split in five species: C. heuffelianus , C. neapolitanus , C. neglectus sp. nov., C. siculus and C. vernus . The comparison of genome total haploid lengths suggests that in the evolution of the group polyploidization only played a role within the C. vernus species complex, where we also detected two hybridization events. In all other taxa, chromosome evolution is probably characterized by chromosome fusions and fissions, sometimes affecting the entire haploid chromosome set. Comparative cytogenetics of the group indicates that series Verni is subject to a peculiar type of unequal change in chromosome size, i.e., that not both chromosome arms gain or lose equally in DNA content. As a taxonomic consequence of our study, series Verni is newly circumscribed, now including the autumn-flowering C. longiflorus and excluding C. baytopiorum .
    Keywords: Crocus ; Karyotype evolution ; Molecular systematics ; Taxonomy
    ISSN: 0378-2697
    E-ISSN: 2199-6881
    E-ISSN: 16156110
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  • 4
    In: Phytotaxa, 05/11/2016, Vol.260(2), p.131
    ISSN: 1179-3155
    E-ISSN: 1179-3163
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Italian Botanist, 01 September 2018, Vol.6, pp.23-30
    Description: The Italian endemic Crocus biflorus usually shows white or lilac flowers with three-to-five striking violet longitudinal stripes on the outer tepals, but unstriped plants were recorded in the past. These plants were originally described as C. annulatus subvar. estriatus, and subsequently recombined as a variety of C. biflorus. The rediscovery of such plants in Toscana gave us the opportunity to clarify their systematic relationships, so that we typified the name, and performed karyological and ITS analyses. These plants share the same chromosome number (2n = 2x = 8) and ITS sequence with C. biflorus s. str.
    Keywords: Botany
    E-ISSN: 2531-4033
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  • 6
    In: Nordic Journal of Botany, December 2011, Vol.29(6), pp.722-733
    Description: The typification of the name Evers (a lectotype in GZU is designated here) and studies of living topotype material, led us to conclude that is a full synonym of , sharing morphological, karyological (2n=84) and molecular (ITS region, L–F IGS, A–nH IGS) features with the latter species. , as newly circumscribed here, shows a close relationship with (M. Bieb.) Sweet and, above all, with K. Koch (possibly a hybridogenous taxon). In short, our new morphological and molecular data provide new evidence for hybridization and introgression between the closely related and (both in sect. s).
    Keywords: Botany;
    ISSN: 0107-055X
    E-ISSN: 1756-1051
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  • 7
    In: TURKISH JOURNAL OF BOTANY, 2014, Vol.38, pp.1182-1198
    Description: Recent phylogenetic analyses proved several infrageneric units within the genus Crocus to be para- or polyphyletic. In an attempt to arrive at a system of Crocus that closely reflects species relationships, we provide here phylogenetic, morphometric, geographic, and nomenclatorial data for the species of a narrower-defined, monophyletic Crocus series Reticulati. We sequenced the ETS and ITS regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA in 9 Reticulati and 19 outgroup species. Three chloroplast loci (trnL-F, rps16-trnQ, matK-trnK) were sequenced in the newly defined series Reticulati species and 1 outgroup. Data were analyzed with Bayesian and parsimony algorithms. The phylogenies resulted in 2 clearly separated, geographically defined species groups within the series Reticulati. The southern one comprises only the taxa from Turkey, while the species of the second group are distributed from Italy in the west through the areas north of the Black Sea to the Caucasus in the east. To arrive at monophyletic species we describe here C. danubensis sp. nov., C. filis-maculatis sp. nov., and C. orphei sp. nov. as new species, and we define C. reticulatus s.s. to comprise only the populations in the area north and east of the Black Sea.
    Keywords: Botany;
    ISSN: 1300008X
    E-ISSN: 13036106
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    In: Ecology and Evolution, May 2019, Vol.9(10), pp.5870-5890
    Description: The Irano‐Turanian (IT) floristic region is considered an important center of origin for many taxa. However, there is a lack of studies dealing with typical IT genera that also occur in neighboring areas. The species‐rich monocot genus Salisb. shows a center of diversity in IT region and a distribution in adjacent regions, therefore representing a good study object to investigate spatial and temporal relationships among IT region and its neighboring areas (East Asia, Euro‐Siberia, Himalaya, and Mediterranean). We aimed at (a) testing the origin of the genus and of its major lineages in the IT region, (b) reconstructing divergence times, and (c) reconstructing colonization events. To address these problems, sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 418 individuals and chloroplast intergenic spacers sequences (A‐H, L‐F) of 497 individuals, representing 116 species from all sections of the genus and nearly its entire distribution area were analyzed. Divergence times were estimated under a random molecular clock based on nrITS phylogeny, which was the most complete data set regarding the representation of species and distribution areas. Ancestral distribution ranges were estimated for the nrITS data set as well as for a combined data set, revealing that most likely originated in southwestern Asia. This genus first diversified there starting in the Early Miocene. In the Middle Miocene, migrated to the Mediterranean and to East Asia, while migration into Euro‐Siberia took place in the Late Miocene. During the Pleistocene, the Arctic was colonized and the most widespread species, reached North America. The Mediterranean basin was colonized multiple times from southwestern Asia or Euro‐Siberia. Most of the currently existing species originated during the last 3 Ma. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstructions were carried out for the species‐rich monocot genus (Liliaceae). Our study could demonstrate that the species‐rich Irano‐Turanian (IT) floristic region, a current centre of species diversity, is also the origin of the genus and of its major linages. Colonisation of adjacent areas started from the IT floristic region and benefit from periods of climatic changes creating dry habits. Therefore, our study supports that the IT region is an important source of taxa for adjacent areas of Euro‐Siberia.
    Keywords: Ancestral Area Reconstruction ; Biogeography ; Dated Phylogeny ; Gagea ; Irano‐Turanian Region ; Southwestern Asia
    ISSN: 2045-7758
    E-ISSN: 2045-7758
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2009, Vol.278(3), pp.133-148
    Description: Hybridization seems to play an important role in speciation of Gagea Salisb., a genus which is characterised by polyploid taxa lines and in which diploids (2 n  = 24) appear only to be common in basal sections. Hybrid detection was applied utilising direct and cloning nrDNA ITS data (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) combined with neighbour and ribotype networks and discussed in connection with previously published cpDNA, morphological and karyological data of the authors. We have evidence of the hybrid origin of taxa within the section Gagea ( G. pomeranica , G. megapolitana ) and the monophyletic clade of sections Didymobulbos and Fistulosae ( G. microfistulosa , G. polidorii , G. cf. bohemica ). Morphologically and karyologically differentiated Gagea megapolitana and G. pomeranica , adapted to synanthropic habitats, represent both hybrids of G. pratensis  ×  G. lutea . Gagea microfistulosa represents a hybrid of G. villosa  ×  G. fragifera ; Gagea polidorii could represent the reverse hybrid. G. glacialis is also closely related to the latter complex.
    Keywords: Concerted evolution ; Salisb. ; Hybridization ; ITS-region ; Morphology ; Networks ; Polyploidization ; Speciation
    ISSN: 0378-2697
    E-ISSN: 1615-6110
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  • 10
    In: Italian Botanist, 05/05/2017, Vol.3, pp.29-48
    Description: In this contribution new data concerning the distribution of native vascular flora in Italy are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations to the Italian administrative regions for taxa in the genera Asplenium, Bolboschoenus, Botrychium, Chamaerops, Crocus, Galeopsis, Grafia, Helosciadium, Hieracium, Juniperus, Leucanthemum, Lolium, Medicago, Phalaris, Piptatherum, Potamogeton, Salicornia, Salvia, Seseli, Silene, Spiraea, Torilis and Vicia. Rhaponticoides calabrica is proposed as synonym novum of R. centaurium. Furthermore, new combinations in the genera Galatella and Lactuca are proposed.
    Keywords: Botany;
    ISSN: Italian Botanist
    E-ISSN: 2531-4033
    Source: CrossRef
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