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  • Platten, Michael  (14)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 07 January 2014, Vol.111(1), pp.409-14
    Description: A hypoxic microenvironment induces resistance to alkylating agents by activating targets in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The molecular mechanisms involved in this mTOR-mediated hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, however, are unclear. Here we identify the mTOR target N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a key determinant of resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy, driven by hypoxia but also by therapeutic measures such as irradiation, corticosteroids, and chronic exposure to alkylating agents via distinct molecular routes involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, p53, and the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)/serum glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1) pathway. Resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy but not radiotherapy was dependent on NDRG1 expression and activity. In posttreatment tumor tissue of patients with malignant gliomas, NDRG1 was induced and predictive of poor response to alkylating chemotherapy. On a molecular level, NDRG1 bound and stabilized methyltransferases, chiefly O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a key enzyme for resistance to alkylating agents in glioblastoma patients. In patients with glioblastoma, MGMT promoter methylation in tumor tissue was not more predictive for response to alkylating chemotherapy in patients who received concomitant corticosteroids.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating -- Pharmacology ; Brain Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Cell Cycle Proteins -- Metabolism ; Glioblastoma -- Drug Therapy ; Glioma -- Drug Therapy ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins -- Metabolism ; O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase -- Pharmacology ; Tor Serine-Threonine Kinases -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 04/15/2011, Vol.71(8 Supplement), pp.LB-382-LB-382
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Neurochemistry, October 2014, Vol.131(2), pp.251-264
    Description: Human glioblastomas may be hierarchically organized. Within this hierarchy, glioblastoma‐initiating cells have been proposed to be more resistant to radiochemotherapy and responsible for recurrence. Here, established stem cell markers and stem cell attributed characteristics such as self‐renewal capacity and tumorigenicity have been profiled in primary glioblastoma cultures to predict radiosensitivity. Furthermore, the sensitivity to radiotherapy of different subpopulations within a single primary glioblastoma culture was analyzed by a flow cytometric approach using Nestin, SRY (sex‐determining region Y)‐box 2 (SOX2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The protein expression of Nestin and SOX2 as well as the mRNA levels of Musashi1, L1 cell adhesion molecule, CD133, Nestin, and pleiomorphic adenoma gene‐like 2 inversely correlated with radioresistance in regard to the clonogenic potential. Only CD44 protein expression correlated positively with radioresistance. In terms of proliferation, Nestin protein expression and Musashi1, pleiomorphic adenoma gene‐like 2, and CD133 mRNA levels are inversely correlated with radioresistance. Higher expression of stem cell markers does not correlate with resistance to radiochemotherapy in the cancer genome atlas glioblastoma collective. SOX2 expressing subpopulations exist within single primary glioblastoma cultures. These subpopulations predominantly form the proliferative pool of the primary cultures and are sensitive to irradiation. Thus, profiling of established stem cell markers revealed a surprising result. Except CD44, the tested stem cell markers showed an inverse correlation between expression and radioresistance. Markers used to define glioma‐initiating cells (GIC) are generally not defining a more resistant, but rather a more sensitive group of glioma cells. An exemption is CD44 expression. Also proliferation of the GIC culture itself was not systematically associated with radiosensitivity or – resistance, but a SOX‐2 positive, proliferative subgroup within a GIC culture is showing the highest radiosensitivity. Markers used to define glioma‐initiating cells (GIC) are generally not defining a more resistant, but rather a more sensitive group of glioma cells. An exemption is CD44 expression. Also proliferation of the GIC culture itself was not systematically associated with radiosensitivity or – resistance, but a SOX‐2 positive, proliferative subgroup within a GIC culture is showing the highest radiosensitivity.
    Keywords: Cd133 ; Glioma‐Initiating Cells ; Profiling ; Radiotherapy Sensitivity ; Sox2 ; Stem Cell Markers
    ISSN: 0022-3042
    E-ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 4
    In: Neuro-Oncology, 2011, Vol. 13(6), pp.566-579
    Description: Insights into the molecular pathogenesis of glioblastoma have not yet resulted in relevant clinical improvement. With standard therapy, which consists of surgical resection with concomitant temozolomide in addition to radiotherapy followed by adjuvant temozolomide, the median duration of survival is 12–14 months. Therefore, the identification of novel molecular targets and inhibitory agents has become a focus of research for glioblastoma treatment. Recent results of bevacizumab may represent a proof of principle that treatment with targeted agents can result in clinical benefits for patients with glioblastoma. This review discusses limitations in the existing therapy for glioblastoma and provides an overview of current efforts to identify molecular targets using large-scale screening of glioblastoma cell lines and tumor samples. We discuss preclinical and clinical data for several novel molecular targets, including growth factor receptors, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, SRC-family kinases, integrins, and CD95 ligand and agents that inhibit these targets, including erlotinib, enzastaurin, dasatinib, sorafenib, cilengitide, AMG102, and APG101. By combining advances in tumor screening with novel targeted therapies, it is hoped that new treatment options will emerge for this challenging tumor type.
    Keywords: Integrins ; Pi3 Kinase ; Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ; Src - Family Kinases ; Vegf Signaling
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
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  • 5
    In: Nature Reviews Neurology, 2014
    Description: Many patients with malignant gliomas do not respond to alkylating agent chemotherapy. Alkylator resistance of glioma cells is mainly mediated by the DNA repair enzyme 06-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Epigenetic silencing of the MGMT gene by promoter methylation in glioma cells compromises this DNA repair mechanism and increases chemosensitivity. MGMT promoter methylation is, therefore, a strong prognostic biomarker in paediatric and adult patients with glioblastoma treated with temozolomide. Notably, elderly patients (〉65-70 years) with glioblastoma whose tumours lack MGMT promoter methylation derive minimal benefit from such chemotherapy. Thus, MGMT promoter methylation status has become a frequently requested laboratory test in neuro-oncology. This Review presents current data on the prognostic and predictive relevance of MGMT testing, discusses clinical trials that have used MGMT status to select participants, evaluates known issues concerning the molecular testing procedure, and addresses the necessity for molecular-contextdependent interpretation of MGMT test results. Whether MGMT promoter methylation testing should be offered to all individuals with glioblastoma, or only to elderly patients and those in clinical trials, is also discussed. Justifications for withholding alkylating agent chemotherapy in patients with MGMT-unmethylated glioblastomas outside clinical trials, and the potential role for MGMT testing in other gliomas, are also discussed. published online 10 June 2014; doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.100
    Keywords: Methyltransferases – Properties ; Gliomas – Genetic Aspects ; Gliomas – Care and Treatment ; Molecular Targeted Therapy – Research;
    ISSN: 1759-4758
    E-ISSN: 17594766
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  • 6
  • 7
    In: Neuro-Oncology, 2010, Vol. 12(9), pp.894-907
    Description: Previous findings suggest an angiogenesis-regulating function of the p53 tumor suppressor protein in various malignancies. With several antiangiogenic agents entering the clinic, we assessed the value of the TP53 status in predicting angiogenesis in glioblastoma in vivo and examined underlying angiogenic-signaling pathways in vitro. We identified 26 TP53 wild-type and 9 TP53 mutated treatment-naïve, primary, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) wild-type glioblastoma specimens by sequence analysis and quantified vascularization. P53 responsiveness of the angiogenesis-related target genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ), basic fibroblast growth factor ( bFGF ), thrombospondin 1 ( TSP-1 ), brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 ( BAI1 ), and collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase alpha 2 ( P4HA2 ), was evaluated by (i) overexpression of wild-type p53 in homozygously TP53 -deleted LN-308 cells; (ii) shRNA-mediated p53 knockdown in the TP53 wild-type LNT-229 cells; and (iii) chemical induction of wild-type p53 expression in LNT-229 cells by camptothecin. Irrespective of the TP53 status, vascularization did not differ significantly between the two groups of glioblastoma specimens. Of all target genes, only P4HA2 mRNA was upregulated through wild-type p53. As opposed to several nonglial tumors, in glioblastoma cells, p53-mediated transcriptional induction of P4HA2 mRNA neither resulted in increased levels of P4HA2 protein or antiangiogenic endostatin nor did it influence endothelial cell sprouting, viability, or transmigration in vitro. Moreover, p53-uncoupled stable overexpression of P4HA2 in LN-308 cells did not affect endothelial cell viability. These data challenge the view of p53 as an angiogenesis-regulator in glioblastoma in that relevant signaling pathways are silenced, potentially contributing to the angiogenic switch during malignant progression.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis ; Collagen Prolyl Hydroxylase ; Glioblastoma ; P53
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Oncotarget, 30 August 2016, Vol.7(35), pp.56713-56725
    Description: Influencing cancer metabolism by lifestyle changes is an attractive strategy as - if effective - exercise-induced problems may be less severe than those induced by classical anti-cancer therapies. Pursuing this idea, clinical trials evaluated the benefit of e.g. different diets such as the ketogenic diet, intermittent caloric restriction and physical exercise (PE) in the primary and secondary prevention of different cancer types. PE proved to be beneficial in the context of breast and colon cancer.Glioblastoma has a dismal prognosis, with an average overall survival of about one year despite maximal safe resection, concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide therapy. Here, we focused on the influence of PE as an isolated and adjuvant treatment in murine GB therapy.PE did not reduce toxic side effects of chemotherapy in mice administered in a dose escalating scheme as shown before for starvation. Although regular treadmill training on its own had no obvious beneficial effects, its combination with temozolomide was beneficial in the treatment of glioblastoma-bearing mice. As PE might partly act through the induction of reactive oxygen species, dihydroartemisinin - an approved anti-malarial drug which induces oxidative stress in glioma cells - was further evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Dihydroartemisinin showed anti-glioma activity by promoting autophagy, reduced the clonogenic survival and proliferation capacity of glioma cells, and prolonged the survival of tumor bearing mice. Using the reactive oxygen species scavenger n-acetyl-cysteine these effects were in part reversible, suggesting that dihydroartemisinin partly acts through the generation of reactive oxygen species.
    Keywords: Dihydroartemisinin ; Glioblastoma ; Physical Exercise ; Physical Exercises (Pe) ; Therapy ; Oxidative Stress ; Physical Conditioning, Animal ; Antimalarials -- Administration & Dosage ; Artemisinins -- Administration & Dosage ; Brain Neoplasms -- Therapy ; Dacarbazine -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Glioblastoma -- Therapy
    E-ISSN: 1949-2553
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  • 9
    In: Neurology, 2013, Vol.81(17), pp.1515-1522
    Description: OBJECTIVE:: To explore whether the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or 1p/19q status determines the prognostic vs predictive role of O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in the Neuro-Oncology Working Group of the German Cancer Society (NOA)-04 trial anaplastic glioma biomarker cohort. METHODS:: Patients (n = 183) of the NOA-04 trial with known MGMT and IDH1 status were analyzed for interdependency of the prognostic vs predictive role of MGMT promoter methylation from IDH1 or 1p/19q status and treatment, using progression-free survival (PFS) as an endpoint. An independent validation cohort of the German Glioma Network (n = 75) and the NOA-08 trial (n = 34) served as a confirmation cohort. RESULTS:: In tumors with IDH1 mutation, MGMT promoter methylation was associated with prolonged PFS with chemotherapy ± radiotherapy (RT) or RT-only groups, and is thus prognostic. In tumors without IDH1 mutation, MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased PFS in patients treated with chemotherapy, but not in those who received RT alone as the first-line treatment, and is thus chemotherapy-predictive. In contrast, 1p/19q codeletions showed no such association with the prognostic vs predictive value of MGMT. CONCLUSIONS:: MGMT promoter methylation is a predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating agent chemotherapy in patients with IDH1–wild-type, but not IDH1-mutant, malignant gliomas of World Health Organization grades III/IV. Combined IDH1/MGMT assessment may help to individualize clinical decision-making in neuro-oncology.
    Keywords: Alkylating Agents ; Chemotherapy ; Radiotherapy ; Survival ; Oncology ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase ; Tumors ; O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase ; Clinical Trials ; Biomarkers ; Brain Tumors ; Decision Making ; DNA Methylation ; Glioma ; Mutation ; Neurology & Neuropathology;
    ISSN: 0028-3878
    E-ISSN: 1526632X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Oncotarget, 13 October 2015, Vol.6(31), pp.31050-68
    Description: Loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a prerequisite for tumor cell-specific expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 in glioblastoma defining a subgroup prone to develop evasive resistance towards antiangiogenic treatments. Immunohistochemical analysis of human tumor tissues showed VEGFR-2 expression in glioma cells in 19% of specimens examined, mainly in the infiltration zone. Glioma cell VEGFR-2 positivity was restricted to PTEN-deficient tumor specimens. PTEN overexpression reduced VEGFR-2 expression in vitro, as well as knock-down of raptor or rictor. Genetic interference with VEGFR-2 revealed proproliferative, antiinvasive and chemoprotective functions for VEGFR-2 in glioma cells. VEGFR-2-dependent cellular effects were concomitant with activation of 'kappa-light-chain-enhancer' of activated B-cells, protein kinase B, and N-myc downstream regulated gene 1. Two-photon in vivo microscopy revealed that expression of VEGFR-2 in glioma cells hampers antiangiogenesis. Bevacizumab induces a proinvasive response in VEGFR-2-positive glioma cells. Patients with PTEN-negative glioblastomas had a shorter survival after initiation of bevacizumab therapy compared with PTEN-positive glioblastomas. Conclusively, expression of VEGFR-2 in glioma cells indicates an aggressive glioblastoma subgroup developing early resistance to temozolomide or bevacizumab. Loss of PTEN may serve as a biomarker identifying those tumors upfront by routine neuropathological methods.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis ; Glioblastoma ; Invasion ; Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 (Pten) ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (Vegfr)-2 ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Neovascularization, Pathologic ; Angiogenesis Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Brain Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Glioma -- Drug Therapy ; Pten Phosphohydrolase -- Deficiency ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1949-2553
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