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  • Preiser, Wolfgang  (18)
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  • 1
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2010, Vol.37(7), pp.454-459
    Description: BACKGROUND:: The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of coinfecting viruses and Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) in a cohort of 205 antiretrovirally treated HIV-infected individuals (152 females and 53 males, aged: 19–71 years) in rural Lesotho. Furthermore agent-specific immune responses were investigated by analyzing antibody titers against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and against T. pallidum. METHODS:: Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses, and T. pallidum. RESULTS:: Seroprevalences (95% confidence intervals) were found to be 100% (98.5%–100%) for anti-cytomegalovirus, 98.5% (95.7%–99.7%) for anti-hepatitis A virus, 35.5% (28.9%–42.6%) for anti-HBc, 5.5% (2.8%–9.6%) for hepatitis B surface antigen, and 0.5% (0.0%–2.8%) for anti-hepatitis C virus. Only 78.5% (72.2%–84.0%) were anti-HSV-2 positive and 29.0% (22.8%–35.8%) had antibodies against T. pallidum. Only anti-HSV-2 titers showed gender- and CD4 cell-count dependent differences: females with 〉500 CD4 cells/μL had an average anti-HSV-2 titer of 446 compared with males of 398 AU/mL (not significant), but in those with 250 to 500 CD4 cells/μL, there was a significant difference with a mean titer of 467 compared to 302 AU/mL in males (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: A high seroprevalence of CMV, HAV, and HBV was found in both genders. One-third of the patients had been exposed to HBV and T. pallidum. The generally high HSV-2 prevalence showed gender- and CD4 cell count-dependent differences in HSV-2 antibody titer.
    Keywords: Hiv Infections -- Research ; Hiv Infections -- Demographic Aspects ; Immune Response -- Research ; Immune Response -- Demographic Aspects ; Treponema Pallidum -- Drug Therapy ; Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay -- Usage;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Clinical chemistry, July 2006, Vol.52(7), pp.1258-66
    Description: Current HIV-1 viral-load assays are too expensive for resource-limited settings. In some countries, monitoring of antiretroviral therapy is now more expensive than treatment itself. In addition, some commercial assays have shown shortcomings in quantifying rare genotypes. We evaluated real-time reverse transcription-PCR with internal control targeting the conserved long terminal repeat (LTR) domain of HIV-1 on reference panels and patient samples from Brazil (n = 1186), South Africa (n = 130), India (n = 44), and Germany (n = 127). The detection limit was 31.9 IU of HIV-1 RNA/mL of plasma (〉 95% probability of detection, Probit analysis). The internal control showed inhibition in 3.7% of samples (95% confidence interval, 2.32%-5.9%; n = 454; 40 different runs). Comparative qualitative testing yielded the following: Roche Amplicor vs LTR assay (n = 431 samples), 51.7% vs 65% positives; Amplicor Ultrasensitive vs LTR (n = 133), 81.2% vs 82.7%; BioMerieux NucliSens HIV-1 QT (n = 453), 60.5% vs 65.1%; Bayer Versant 3.0 (n = 433), 57.7% vs 55.4%; total (n = 1450), 59.0% vs 63.8% positives. Intra-/interassay variability at medium and near-negative concentrations was 18%-51%. The quantification range was 50-10,000,000 IU/mL. Viral loads for subtypes A-D, F-J, AE, and AG yielded mean differences of 0.31 log(10) compared with Amplicor in the 10(3)-10(4) IU/mL range. HIV-1 N and O were not detected by Amplicor, but yielded up to 180 180.00 IU/mL in the LTR assay. Viral loads in stored samples from all countries, compared with Amplicor, NucliSens, or Versant, yielded regression line slopes (SD) of 0.9 (0.13) (P 〈 0.001 for all). This method offers all features of commercial assays and covers all relevant genotypes. It could allow general monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings.
    Keywords: HIV Long Terminal Repeat ; HIV-1 ; Viral Load ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction -- Methods
    ISSN: 0009-9147
    E-ISSN: 15308561
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  • 3
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2003, Vol.348(20), pp.1967-1976
    Description: Background The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently been identified as a new clinical entity. SARS is thought to be caused by an unknown infectious agent. Methods Clinical specimens from patients with SARS were searched for unknown viruses with the use of cell cultures and molecular techniques. Results A novel coronavirus was identified in patients with SARS. The virus was isolated in cell culture, and a sequence 300 nucleotides in length was obtained by a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)–based random-amplification procedure. Genetic characterization indicated that the virus is only distantly related to known coronaviruses (identical in 50 to 60 percent of the nucleotide sequence). On the basis of the obtained sequence, conventional and real-time PCR assays for specific and sensitive detection of the novel virus were established. Virus was detected in a variety of clinical specimens from patients with SARS but not in controls. High concentrations of viral RNA of up to 100 million molecules per milliliter were found in sputum. Viral RNA was also detected at extremely low concentrations in plasma during the acute phase and in feces during the late convalescent phase. Infected patients showed seroconversion on the Vero cells in which the virus was isolated. Conclusions The novel coronavirus might have a role in causing SARS. This study used cell culture and molecular techniques to identify the infectious agent associated with SARS. A novel coronavirus was found in multiple samples from 18 patients but in no specimens from control subjects. In the patients there were high concentrations of viral RNA in sputum, a finding consistent with a highly infectious agent. Low concentrations of viral RNA were also detected in stool. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was recently identified as a new clinical entity.1,2 Patients present with fever, dry cough, dyspnea, headache, and hypoxemia. Typical laboratory findings are lymphopenia and mildly elevated aminotransferase levels. Death may result from progressive respiratory failure due to alveolar damage.3 SARS appears to be caused by an unknown infectious agent that is transmitted from human to human. The World Health Organization (WHO) had recorded 2353 cases by April 4, 2003. About 4 percent of patients with SARS have died.4 The SARS epidemic started in Asia, with the majority of cases occurring in China and . . .
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Antiviral Research, 2005, Vol.66(2), pp.81-97
    Description: A new disease, the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), emerged at the beginning of 2003 and rapidly spread throughout the world. Although the disease had disappeared in June 2003 its re-emergence cannot be excluded. The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV may take years. Therefore, the availability of effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV may be crucial for the control of future SARS outbreaks. In this review, experimental and clinical data about potential anti-SARS drugs is summarised and discussed. Animal model studies will be needed to help to determine which interventions warrant controlled clinical testing.
    Keywords: Anti-Viral Therapy ; Sars-Cov ; Ribavirin ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 0166-3542
    E-ISSN: 1872-9096
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 September 2000, Vol.182(3), pp.643-651
    Description: In fibroblasts, infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) inhibits expression of the extracellular matrix proteins thrombospondin-1 and -2 (TSP-1 and TSP-2). These effects may depend on expression of HCMV immediate-early (IE) genes, which are activated by cellular transcription factor NF-kB. The influence of HCMV infection on TSP-1 and TSP-2 expression and the ability of different antiviral drugs to prevent these cellular changes in permissive cultures of human retinal glial cells were observed. Ganciclovir inhibited only HCMV late antigen (LA) expression, whereas antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 2922 and peptide SN50, inhibitors of HCMV IE expression and NF-kB activity, respectively, inhibited both IE and LA expression. ISIS 2922 and SN50, but not ganciclovir, prevented down-modulation of TSP1 and TSP-2. The results showed that HCMV-induced down-modulation of TSP-1 and TSP2 in retinal glial cells is prevented by inhibition of HCMV IE expression. These findings may be relevant to pathogenesis and treatment of HCMV retinitis.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Pharmaceutics ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2003, Vol.192(3), pp.133-136
    Keywords: Herpesviruses ; Oral infection ; Epidemiology ; Persistence ; Recurrent infection
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Virology, 2001, Vol.20(1), pp.23-30
    Description: During the last 5 years, considerable scientific and financial efforts have been made in the development of quantitative nucleic acid detection technology. For detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), quantitative culture is time consuming, cumbersome and requires appropriate laboratory safety equipment. Quantitative determination of p24 antigen by enzyme immunoassay is of limited value due to its relatively poor sensitivity. Therefore, quantitative determination of viral load using nucleic acid amplification techniques is the most accurate, prognostic marker for HIV type 1 infection, independently of the CD4+ cell count. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not cultivable in vitro. Serological assays allow an accurate diagnosis and follow-up of acute or chronic infection. Quantification of HBV DNA is used for the monitoring of antiviral therapy, determination of infectivity and for resolution of unclear serological profiles, e.g. isolated anti-HBc reactivity, as well as for patients in which HBV mutants are suspected. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can only be detected by molecular based assays because no cell culture system, which permits a reliable isolation of clinical specimens, is currently available. Furthermore, early diagnosis and follow-up of infection cannot be achieved with antibody serology. The prognostic relevance of quantitative HCV RNA determination is of limited value for the long-term prognosis of chronic hepatitis C. However, viral load may predict the outcome of antiviral therapy. Genetic diversity is another challenge for HCV RNA quantification.
    Keywords: Hbv ; Hcv ; HIV ; Pcr ; Quantification ; Nucleic Acid ; Biology
    ISSN: 1386-6532
    E-ISSN: 1873-5967
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  • 8
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2005, Vol. 79(3), p.1635
    Description: Human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were selected from semisynthetic antibody phage display libraries by using whole irradiated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) virions as target. We identified eight human MAbs binding to virus and infected cells, six of which could be mapped to two SARS-CoV structural proteins: the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins. Two MAbs reacted with N protein. One of the N protein MAbs recognized a linear epitope conserved between all published human and animal SARS-CoV isolates, and the other bound to a nonlinear N epitope. These two N MAbs did not compete for binding to SARS-CoV. Four MAbs reacted with the S glycoprotein, and three of these MAbs neutralized SARS-CoV in vitro. All three neutralizing anti-S MAbs bound a recombinant S1 fragment comprising residues 318 to 510, a region previously identified as the SARS-CoV S receptor binding domain; the nonneutralizing MAb did not. Two strongly neutralizing anti-S1 MAbs blocked the binding of a recombinant S fragment (residues 1 to 565) to SARS-CoV-susceptible Vero cells completely, whereas a poorly neutralizing S1 MAb blocked binding only partially. The MAb ability to block S1-receptor binding and the level of neutralization of the two strongly neutralizing S1 MAbs correlated with the binding affinity to the S1 domain. Finally, epitope mapping, using recombinant S fragments (residues 318 to 510) containing naturally occurring mutations, revealed the importance of residue N479 for the binding of the most potent neutralizing MAb, CR3014. The complete set of SARS-CoV MAbs described here may be useful for diagnosis, chemoprophylaxis, and therapy of SARS-CoV infection and disease.
    Keywords: Sars Coronavirus ; Sars Coronavirus ; Monoclonal Antibodies ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ; N Protein ; Nucleocapsids ; Phage Display ; Virions ; Vero Cells ; Epitope Mapping ; Infection ; Structural Proteins ; Glycoproteins ; Mutation ; Monoclonal Antibodies ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ; ^An Protein ; Nucleocapsids ; Phage Display ; Virions ; Vero Cells ; Epitope Mapping ; Infection ; Structural Proteins ; Glycoproteins ; Mutation ; Immunological Techniques & Reagents ; Monoclonal Antibodies, Hybridoma, Antigens;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 9
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin, 2005, Vol.29(1), pp.50-62
    Description: Abstract HIV-1 resistance testing has become an increasingly important feature in antiretroviral treatment and is commonly performed by genotyping. Currently, two different systems are being marketed, and despite being far from easy to use, they have achieved a high degree of quality. Modifications of the standard kit protocols may be advantageous in certain situations. Although resistance reports issued by these systems are based on decision rules, they nevertheless require considerable knowledge and skills by the user to draw useful clinical data out of detected resistance patterns. Both systems described here in detail have their advantages and disadvantages; a decision in favor of one or the other needs to be based on individual requirements. In the future, Microarray systems may achieve a leading position on the market.
    Keywords: Hiv-1 Genotypisierung ; Resistenztestung ; Therapiemonitoring ; Trugene ; Viroseq ; Hiv-1 Genotyping ; Resistance Testing ; Therapy Monitoring ; Trugene ; Viroseq
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 0025-8466
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Antiviral therapy, June 2003, Vol.8(3), pp.239-44
    Description: HIV-1 genotyping has become a widely accepted tool for monitoring antiretroviral therapy. However, the benefit of genotyping is limited by the need to interpret the mutation pattern in order to obtain a prediction regarding susceptibility to each antiretroviral drug. Several different interpretation systems are currently available, commercially or free of charge; some are in combination with the genotyping test system used. In this study, we compared the results obtained on patient samples, using nine different resistance interpretation systems for HIV-1 genotype, and identified mutation patterns responsible for discordances between these systems. HIV-1 genotypes from 26 patients were obtained using the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System (Applied Biosystems). Nine resistance interpretation systems were used: the 'virtual phenotype' systems VirtualPhenotype (Virco) and Geno2Pheno (http://cartan.gmd.de/geno2pheno.html), the rule-based resistance algorithms Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Report (Applied Biosystems), Stanford HIV-SEQ program (http://hivdb.stanford.edu/) and the ViroScorer system (ABL; including ANRS AC11, Detroit Medical Center, Grupo de Aconselhamento Virológico, CHL, and Rega). Discordance was defined as the same sequence being interpreted as resistant and sensitive to a substance by different systems, with intermediate scores being regarded as neutral. Results for lopinavir were not available from some interpretation systems. None of the 26 patient samples had concordant results for all drugs. The highest degree of concordance was found for the resistance scoring of lamivudine (25/26), followed by nelfinavir (23/26), indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir (all 22/26), zidovudine, nevirapine (all 21/26), lopinavir, efavirenz (all 18/26), amprenavir, delavirdine (all 17/26), stavudine, abacavir (all 13/26), zalcitabine (7/26) and didanosine (5/26). In most cases, it was only one interpretation system that gave an interpretation different from the others. If this interpretation system was omitted, the overall discordance rate decreased by a statistically significant degree. There exists, therefore, an urgent need for standardization of interpretation algorithms for HIV-1 genotyping.
    Keywords: Anti-HIV Agents -- Pharmacology ; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral -- Genetics ; HIV Infections -- Virology ; HIV-1 -- Drug Effects
    ISSN: 1359-6535
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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