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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: BMC Veterinary Research, August 6, 2015, Vol.11(1)
    Description: Background In vitro platelet aggregation in feline blood samples is a well-known phenomenon in veterinary clinical laboratories resulting in high numbers of pseudothrombocytopenia. Several attempts have been made to prevent or dissolve platelet aggregates in feline blood samples and to increase the reliability of feline platelet counts. Prostaglandin I.sub.2 (PGI.sub.2) is the most powerful endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation but unstable. Iloprost is a stable PGI.sub.2 analogue. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the anti-aggregatory effect of Iloprost on feline platelet counts and to determine a useful concentration to inhibit platelet aggregation in EDTA samples from clinically healthy cats, (2) to investigate the effect of Iloprost on hematological blood parameters, and (3) to determine stability of Iloprost in K3-EDTA tubes for up to 16 weeks. From 20 clinically healthy cats blood was drawn from the jugular vein and immediately distributed in a 1.3 ml K.sub.3-EDTA tube, and two 1.3 ml K.sub.3-EDTA tubes containing 20 ng and 200 ng Iloprost, respectively. A complete blood cell count was performed on the Sysmex XT-2000iV and the Mythic 18 on eight consecutive time points after collection. Blood smears were evaluated for the presence of PLT aggregates. Results In the absence of Iloprost, pseudothrombocytopenia was observed in 50 % of the investigated samples that led to significantly decreased optical PLT counts by a mean of 105 x10.sup.3/[mu]l, which could be prevented by the addition of 1 [mu]L (20 ng) Iloprost leading to an increase in PLT counts by a mean of 108 x10.sup.3/[mu]l. Conclusion This is the first study showing an anti-aggregatory effect of the PGI.sub.2-analogue Iloprost in feline EDTA blood. In all clinically healthy cats investigated, pseudothrombocytopenia was prevented by adding Iloprost to EDTA tubes prior to blood collection. Furthermore, Iloprost was very useful in preventing falsely increased WBC counts in samples with platelet aggregates analyzed on impedance-based hematological instruments. Iloprost is preferable to PGI.sub.2 or PGE.sub.1 due to its stability and easy and safe handling properties. Cytological evaluations of blood smears as well as other hematological parameters were not influenced to a clinically significant degree by the presence of Iloprost. Keywords: Feline EDTA blood, Iloprost, Platelets, Prostaglandin I.sub.2-analogue, Pseudothrombocytopenia, Platelet aggregates
    Keywords: Blood Banks – Analysis ; White Blood Cell Count – Analysis
    ISSN: 1746-6148
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: BMC veterinary research, 05 November 2015, Vol.11, pp.276
    Description: Feline platelets are prone to clumping after blood collection, rendering the determination of accurate platelet counts difficult for clinical laboratories and resulting in a high incidence of pseudothrombocytopenia in feline haematology reports. No information is available about the kinetics of platelet aggregate formation in feline ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood and the course of platelet counts over a clinically relevant time period. The aim of the present study was to determine platelet counts in healthy cats over a time period of 24 h after blood collection at 9 time points; to assess potential effects of platelet aggregates, anaesthesia and bleeding conditions on feline platelets and white blood cell counts; and finally, to investigate if glucose concentration is associated with the presence of aggregates. From 30 clinically healthy cats, blood samples were analysed at 9 different time points using two different haematology instruments (using fluorescence and impedance-based flow cytometry) in the counting chamber and by blood smear evaluation. Fourteen of the 30 samples were thrombocytopenic at one to 8 time points after collection as analysed on a fluorescence flow cytometry haematology analyser. At the 24-h timepoint, all thrombocytopenic samples had returned to normal platelet counts. Seventeen of the 30 samples showed platelet aggregates in the counting chamber. Significant differences in platelet counts were associated with the presence and size of aggregates and time since bleeding. No statistically significant differences in counts were found with regard to the quality of blood collection or the use of anaesthesia. Platelet aggregation and, therefore, pseudothrombocytopenia occurred in 57 % of the investigated samples at different time points. For the first time, deaggregation of feline platelet aggregates could be demonstrated as a reversible effect of platelet aggregation. For clinical laboratories or veterinarians, it may be helpful to rerun feline samples with pseudothrombocytopenia to obtain a more reliable platelet count. The quality of blood collection seems not to be causative for platelet aggregation. Blood smear evaluation is absolutely indicated in cases when haematology instruments give PLT counts below the reference interval.
    Keywords: Blood Platelets -- Physiology ; Cats -- Blood ; Platelet Aggregation -- Physiology
    E-ISSN: 1746-6148
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Description: BACKGROUND: In vitro platelet aggregation in feline blood samples is a well-known phenomenon in veterinary clinical laboratories resulting in high numbers of pseudothrombocytopenia. Several attempts have been made to prevent or dissolve platelet aggregates in feline blood samples and to increase the reliability of feline platelet counts. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) is the most powerful endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation but unstable. Iloprost is a stable PGI2 analogue. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the anti-aggregatory effect of Iloprost on feline platelet counts and to determine a useful concentration to inhibit platelet aggregation in EDTA samples from clinically healthy cats, (2) to investigate the effect of Iloprost on hematological blood parameters, and (3) to determine stability of Iloprost in K3-EDTA tubes for up to 16 weeks. From 20 clinically healthy cats blood was drawn from the jugular vein and immediately distributed in a 1.3 ml K3-EDTA tube, and two 1.3 ml K3-EDTA tubes containing 20 ng and 200 ng Iloprost, respectively. A complete blood cell count was performed on the Sysmex XT-2000iV and the Mythic 18 on eight consecutive time points after collection. Blood smears were evaluated for the presence of PLT aggregates. RESULTS: In the absence of Iloprost, pseudothrombocytopenia was observed in 50% of the investigated samples that led to significantly decreased optical PLT counts by a mean of 105 x10(3)/μl, which could be prevented by the addition of 1 μL (20 ng) Iloprost leading to an increase in PLT counts by a mean of 108 x10(3)/μl. CONCLUSION: This is the first study showing an anti-aggregatory effect of the PGI2-analogue Iloprost in feline EDTA blood. In all clinically healthy cats investigated, pseudothrombocytopenia was prevented by adding Iloprost to EDTA tubes prior to blood collection. Furthermore, Iloprost was very useful in preventing falsely increased WBC counts in samples with platelet aggregates analyzed on impedance-based hematological instruments. Iloprost is preferable to PGI2 or PGE1 due to its stability and easy and safe handling properties. Cytological evaluations of blood smears as well as other hematological parameters were not influenced to a clinically significant degree by the presence of Iloprost.
    Keywords: Department of Farm Animals ; Chair in Veterinary Epidemiology ; 570 Life sciences; biology ; 630 Agriculture ; Feline EDTA blood; Iloprost; Platelets; Prostaglandin I2-analogue; Pseudothrombocytopenia; Platelet aggregates
    Source: University of Zurich
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Description: BACKGROUND Feline platelets are prone to clumping after blood collection, rendering the determination of accurate platelet counts difficult for clinical laboratories and resulting in a high incidence of pseudothrombocytopenia in feline haematology reports. No information is available about the kinetics of platelet aggregate formation in feline ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood and the course of platelet counts over a clinically relevant time period. The aim of the present study was to determine platelet counts in healthy cats over a time period of 24 h after blood collection at 9 time points; to assess potential effects of platelet aggregates, anaesthesia and bleeding conditions on feline platelets and white blood cell counts; and finally, to investigate if glucose concentration is associated with the presence of aggregates. From 30 clinically healthy cats, blood samples were analysed at 9 different time points using two different haematology instruments (using fluorescence and impedance-based flow cytometry) in the counting chamber and by blood smear evaluation. RESULTS Fourteen of the 30 samples were thrombocytopenic at one to 8 time points after collection as analysed on a fluorescence flow cytometry haematology analyser. At the 24-h timepoint, all thrombocytopenic samples had returned to normal platelet counts. Seventeen of the 30 samples showed platelet aggregates in the counting chamber. Significant differences in platelet counts were associated with the presence and size of aggregates and time since bleeding. No statistically significant differences in counts were found with regard to the quality of blood collection or the use of anaesthesia. Platelet aggregation and, therefore, pseudothrombocytopenia occurred in 57 % of the investigated samples at different time points. CONCLUSION For the first time, deaggregation of feline platelet aggregates could be demonstrated as a reversible effect of platelet aggregation. For clinical laboratories or veterinarians, it may be helpful to rerun feline samples with pseudothrombocytopenia to obtain a more reliable platelet count. The quality of blood collection seems not to be causative for platelet aggregation. Blood smear evaluation is absolutely indicated in cases when haematology instruments give PLT counts below the reference interval.
    Keywords: Department of Farm Animals ; Chair in Veterinary Epidemiology ; 570 Life sciences; biology ; 630 Agriculture
    Source: University of Zurich
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 25 February 2015, Vol.175(2-4), pp.167-178
    Description: Cats persistently infected with the gammaretrovirus feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are at risk to die within months to years from FeLV-associated disease, such as immunosuppression, anemia or lymphoma/leukemia. The integrase inhibitor raltegravir has been demonstrated to reduce FeLV replication . The aim of the present study was to investigate raltegravir for its safety and efficacy to suppress FeLV replication. The safety was tested in three naïve specified pathogen-free (SPF) cats during a 15 weeks treatment period (initially 20 mg then 40 mg orally b.i.d.). No adverse effects were noted. The efficacy was tested in seven persistently FeLV-infected SPF cats attained from 18 cats experimentally exposed to FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The seven cats were treated during nine weeks (40 mg then 80 mg b.i.d.). Raltegravir was well tolerated even at the higher dose. A significant decrease in plasma viral RNA loads (∼5×) was found; however, after treatment termination a rebound effect was observed. Only one cat developed anti-FeLV antibodies and viral RNA loads remained decreased after treatment termination. Of note, one of the untreated FeLV-A infected cats developed fatal FeLV-C associated anemia within 5 weeks of FeLV-A infection. Moreover, progressive FeLV infection was associated with significantly lower enFeLV loads prior to infection supporting that FeLV susceptibility may be related to the genetic background of the cat. Overall, our data demonstrate the ability of raltegravir to reduce viral replication also . However, no complete control of viremia was achieved. Further investigations are needed to find an optimized treatment against FeLV. (250 words)
    Keywords: Feline Leukemia Virus ; Retrovirus ; Viral Loads ; Antiretroviral Therapy ; Immune Response, Raltegravir ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC Veterinary Research, 01 September 2017, Vol.13(1), pp.1-7
    Description: Abstract Background Glucocorticoids influence the synthesis and metabolism of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and metanephrines (metanephrine and normetanephrine). The aim of this study was to measure urinary catecholamines and metanephrines in dogs with hypercortisolism before...
    Keywords: ACTH ; Metanephrines ; Pheochromocytoma ; Trilostane Therapy ; Canine ; Veterinary Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1746-6148
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Research, 2009, Vol.40(5)
    Description: The natural transmission routes of the three feline haemotropic mycoplasmas - Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt) - are largely unknown. Since CMt has been detected in the saliva of infected cats using PCR, we hypothesised...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, Molecular Biology ; Molecular Biology ; Life Sciences ; Genetics ; Animal Genetics ; Life Sciences ; Cellular Biology ; Life Sciences ; Cellular Biology ; Cell Behavior ; Life Sciences ; Microbiology and Parasitology ; Life Sciences ; Immunology ; Life Sciences ; Neurons and Cognition ; Life Sciences ; Santé Publique et Épidémiologie
    ISSN: 0928-4249
    E-ISSN: 1297-9716
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