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  • Roos, Christian  (14)
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  • 1
    Language: Norwegian
    In: Zinner, Dietmar Atickem, Anagaw Meshesha Beehner, Jacinta C. Bekele, Afework Bergman, Thore J. Burke, Ryan Dolotovskaya, Sofya Fashing, Peter Gippoliti, Spartaco Knauf, Sascha Knauf, Yvonne Mekonnen, Addisu Moges, Amera Nguyen, Nga Stenseth, Nils Christian...
    Description: The large-bodied, terrestrial primates in the tribe Papionini are among the most intensely studied animals in the world, yet for some members of this tribe we know comparatively little about their evolutionary history and phylogeography. Geladas (Theropithecus...
    Keywords: Mitochondrial Dna -- Research ; Biogeography -- Analysis ; Gelada -- Health Aspects ; Gelada -- Research ; Gelada -- Protection And Preservation ; Phylogeny -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biology letters, January 2018, Vol.14(1)
    Description: Intergeneric hybridization and introgression was reported from one of two populations of the recently discovered kipunji (), a critically endangered African monkey species of southern Tanzania. Kipunjis of the introgressed population (from Mount Rungwe) carry a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype closely related to those of parapatric yellow baboons (), whereas the second kipunji population, in the Udzungwa Mountains, carries the original kipunji mtDNA haplotypes, which diverged from the baboon lineage about 3 million years ago. Interestingly, in our study of yellow baboons in Tanzania, we found that baboons from the southeastern boundary of the Udzungwa Mountains carry mtDNA haplotypes closely related to the original kipunji haplotype, whereas baboons from the northern boundary, as expected, carry mtDNA haplotypes of the northern yellow baboon clade. These findings provide evidence for a case of inverted intergeneric admixture in primates: (i) a baboon mtDNA haplotype introgressed the Mount Rungwe kipunji population by mitochondrial capture and (ii) an Udzungwa Mountains kipunji mtDNA haplotype introgressed a small subpopulation of yellow baboons by either mitochondrial capture or nuclear swamping. The baboon-kipunji example therefore constitutes an interesting system for further studies of the effects of genetic admixture on fitness and speciation.
    Keywords: Divergence-Age ; Hybridization ; Mitochondrial Capture ; Nuclear Swamping ; Primates ; Haplotypes ; Cercopithecinae -- Genetics ; Papio Cynocephalus -- Genetics
    ISSN: 17449561
    E-ISSN: 1744-957X
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Primatology, 2015, Vol.77(5), pp.579-594
    Keywords: Gelada – Research ; Tapeworm Diseases – Risk Factors ; Animal Reproduction – Research ; Mortality – Risk Factors ; Mortality – Ethiopia
    ISSN: 0275-2565
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 02 January 2018, Vol.3(1), pp.177-178
    Description: The olive baboon (Papio anubis) is the most widely distributed baboon species. We report here on the complete mitochondrial genome of an olive baboon from the south-eastern edge of the species' range from Gombe National Park (NP), Tanzania. The genome (GenBank accession number MG787545) has...
    Keywords: Sanger Sequencing ; Cercopithecidae ; Non-Human Primates ; Anatomy & Physiology
    E-ISSN: 2380-2359
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 19 April 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.6292
    Description: Next-generation sequencing approaches used to characterize microbial communities are subject to technical caveats that can lead to major distortion of acquired data. Determining the optimal sample handling protocol is essential to minimize the bias for different sample types. Using a mock community composed...
    Keywords: Buffers ; Bacteria -- Isolation & Purification ; DNA, Bacterial -- Isolation & Purification
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, June 2018, Vol.24(6), pp.1002-1009
    Description: We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015-2017. We used a serologic treponemal test to detect antibodies against the bacterium. Infection was further confirmed from tissue samples of skin-ulcerated animals by 3 independent PCRs (polA, tp47, and TP_0619). Our findings indicate that T. pallidum infection is geographically widespread in Tanzania and occurs in several species (olive baboons, yellow baboons, vervet monkeys, and blue monkeys). We found the bacterium at 11 of 14 investigated geographic locations. Anogenital ulceration was the most common clinical manifestation; orofacial lesions also were observed. Molecular data show that nonhuman primates in Tanzania are most likely infected with T. pallidum subsp. pertenue-like strains, which could have implications for human yaws eradication.
    Keywords: Africa ; One Health ; Tanzania ; Treponema Pallidum ; Bacteria ; Eradication ; Infection ; Nonhuman Primates ; Spirochetes ; Yaws ; Treponema Pallidum ; Primate Diseases -- Epidemiology ; Yaws -- Veterinary
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 7
    In: American Journal of Primatology, May 2015, Vol.77(5), pp.579-594
    Description: Parasitism is expected to impact host morbidity or mortality, although the fitness costs of parasitism have rarely been quantified for wildlife hosts. Tapeworms in the genus Taenia exploit a variety of vertebrates, including livestock, humans, and geladas (Theropithecus gelada), monkeys endemic to the alpine grasslands of Ethiopia. Despite Taenia's adverse societal and economic impacts, we know little about the prevalence of disease associated with Taenia infection in wildlife or the impacts of this disease on host health, mortality and reproduction. We monitored geladas at Guassa, Ethiopia over a continuous 6½ year period for external evidence (cysts or coenuri) of Taenia-associated disease (coenurosis) and evaluated the impact of coenurosis on host survival and reproduction. We also identified (through genetic and histological analyses) the tapeworms causing coenurosis in wild geladas at Guassa as Taenia serialis. Nearly 1/3 of adult geladas at Guassa possessed ≥1 coenurus at some point in the study. Coenurosis adversely impacted gelada survival and reproduction at Guassa and this impact spanned two generations: adults with coenuri suffered higher mortality than members of their sex without coenuri and offspring of females with coenuri also suffered higher mortality. Coenurosis also negatively affected adult reproduction, lengthening interbirth intervals and reducing the likelihood that males successfully assumed reproductive control over units of females. Our study provides the first empirical evidence that coenurosis increases mortality and reduces fertility in wild nonhuman primate hosts. Our research highlights the value of longitudinal monitoring of individually recognized animals in natural populations for advancing knowledge of parasite-host evolutionary dynamics and offering clues to the etiology and control of infectious disease.
    Keywords: Wildlife Disease Ecology ; Parasites ; Reproduction ; Mortality
    ISSN: 0275-2565
    E-ISSN: 1098-2345
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: BMC evolutionary biology, 10 June 2016, Vol.16(1), pp.121
    Description: Aggressive behaviors are an integral part of competitive interactions. There is considerable variation in aggressiveness among individuals both within and among species. Aggressiveness is a quantitative trait that is highly heritable. In modern humans and macaques (Macaca spp.), variation in aggressiveness among individuals is associated with polymorphisms in the serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmitter system. To further investigate the genetics underlying interspecific variation in aggressiveness, 123 wild individuals from five baboon species (Papio papio, P. hamadryas, P. anubis, P. cynocephalus, and P. ursinus) were screened for two polymorphisms in promoter regions of genes relevant for the 5-HT system (5-HTTLPR and MAOALPR). Surprisingly, despite considerable interspecific variation in aggressiveness, baboons are monomorphic in 5-HTTLPR, except for P. hamadryas, which carries one additional allele. Accordingly, this locus cannot be linked to behavioral variation among species. A comparison among 19 papionin species, including nine species of macaques, shows that the most common baboon allele is similar to the one described for Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), probably representing the ancestral allele in this tribe. It should be noted that (almost) all baboons live in Africa, but within Macaca only M. sylvanus lives on this continent. Baboons are, however, highly polymorphic in the so-called 'warrior gene' MAOALPR, carrying three alleles. Due to considerable variation in allele frequencies among populations of the same species, this genotype cannot be invoked to explain variation in aggressiveness at the species level. This study provides another indication that 5-HTTLPR is not related to aggressiveness in primates per se, but may have been under differential selective pressures among taxa and potentially among populations in different geographic regions. The results on MAOALPR alleles in Papio indicate that variation in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters and associated behaviors is more important among populations than among species. We, therefore, propose to compile behavioral data from additional populations of Papio to obtain further insight into the genetics underlying behavioral differences among primate species.
    Keywords: 5-Ht ; Baboon ; Behavioral Genetics ; Candidate Gene ; Maoa-Uvntr ; Macaca ; Macaque ; Neurotransmitter ; Primate ; Aggression ; Biological Evolution ; Polymorphism, Genetic ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Monoamine Oxidase -- Genetics ; Papio -- Genetics ; Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1471-2148
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of East African Natural History, 06/2015, Vol.104(1-2), pp.143-168
    Description: Recent genetic studies, using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, indicate a complex evolutionary history for baboons Papio spp. in general, and for eastern African baboons in particular. To further address this topic and to improve our understanding of phylogeographic patterns of baboons in eastern Africa, mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data were analysed from 148 baboon samples from 103 locations in eastern Africa. The resultant phylogenetic reconstructions suggest an initial split of baboons into four main clades: southern chacma baboons, baboons from Mahale Mountains in Tanzania, main southern, and main northern. We confirm that the boundary between southern and northern clades lies along the Ugalla-Malagarasi River and Ruaha-Rufiji River of central Tanzania. We detected new mitochondrial haplogroups, most notably the Mahale Mountains clade, and refined haplogroup distributions. The evolutionary divergence of baboons in eastern Africa was most likely triggered and maintained by numerous episodes of population division and reconnection, probably related mainly to climate change. To better understand these processes, nuclear DNA information is required, especially to assess gene flow among populations.
    Keywords: Phylogeography ; Cytochrome ; Ruaha-Rufiji River ; Ugalla-Malagarasi River;
    ISSN: 1026-1613
    ISSN: 00128317
    E-ISSN: 2224-8862
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  • 10
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