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  • Safaie, Naser  (5)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Planta, 2018, Vol.248(5), pp.1289-1306
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-018-2973-z Byline: Hannaneh Tashackori (1), Mohsen Sharifi (1), Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi (2), Mehrdad Behmanesh (3), Naser Safaie (4) Keywords: Elicitation; Gene expression; Hairy root; Lignan; Linum album; Phenylpropanoids Abstract: Main conclusion Elicitation of Linum album hairy roots by Piriformospora indica cell wall induced the target genes and specific metabolites in phenylpropanoid pathway and shifted the amino acid metabolism toward the phenolic compound production. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to defend themselves against various biotic stresses. One of these responses is the production of metabolites that act as defense compounds. Manipulation of plant cell cultures by biotic elicitors is a useful strategy for improving the production of valuable secondary metabolites. This study focused on hairy root culture of Linum album, an important source for lignans. The effects of cell wall elicitor extracted from Piriformospora indica on phenylpropanoid derivatives were evaluated to identify metabolic traits related to biotic stress tolerance. Significant increases in lignin, lignans lariciresinol, podophyllotoxin, and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin phenolic acids: cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and salicylic acid flavonoids: myricetin, kaempferol, and diosmin were observed in response to the fungal elicitor. In addition, the gene expression levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and pinoresinol--lariciresinol reductase significantly increased after elicitation. The composition of free amino acids was altered under the elicitation. Phenylalanine and tyrosine, as precursors of phenylpropanoid metabolites, were increased, but alanine, serine, and glutamic acid significantly decreased in response to the fungal elicitor, suggesting that the amino acid pathway may be shifted toward biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and precursors of the phenylpropanoid pathway. These results provided evidence that up-regulation of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway in response to the fungal elicitor resulted in enhanced metabolic responses associated with the protection in L. album. This approach can also be applied to improve lignan production. Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 1781 3962, grid.412266.5, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115-154, Tehran, Iran (2) 0000 0000 9618 7703, grid.411622.2, Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran (3) 0000 0001 1781 3962, grid.412266.5, Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran (4) 0000 0001 1781 3962, grid.412266.5, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Article History: Registration Date: 06/08/2018 Received Date: 14/03/2018 Accepted Date: 04/08/2018 Online Date: 14/08/2018
    Keywords: Elicitation ; Gene expression ; Hairy root ; Lignan ; Linum album ; Phenylpropanoids
    ISSN: 0032-0935
    E-ISSN: 1432-2048
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC), 2016, Vol.127(1), pp.187-194
    Description: Linum album Kotschy ex Boiss accumulates some secondary metabolites from phenylpropanoid pathway: lignans with antiviral and anticancer properties such as podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin (6MPTOX) and phenolic acids with role in plant defense such as cinnamic, coumaric, caffeic, ferulic acid and salicylic acid (SA). In this research, profiles of lignan and phenolic compounds of L. album hairy roots exposed to mycelium extract of Piriformospora indica were investigated. The mycelium extracts 1 % (v/v) reduce the hairy roots growth, while 24 h after the treatment PTOX and 6MPTOX production were stimulated reaching a maximum 91.019 µg g −1 and 11.54 mg g −1 dry weight (DW), respectively. For lariciresinol, the greatest amount was seen 24 h after the elicitation, about 157.3 µg g −1 DW, 1.6 times more than the control. P. indica induced the highest levels of phenols and flavonoids at 72 h and flavonol at 48 h after elicitation in the hairy roots; 422.69, 15.41 and 15.14 µg g −1 DW, respectively. Moreover, the content of phenolic acids such as; cinnamic, coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid significantly increased in treated hairy roots after 12 h, compared to the control. A moderate increase in SA content in hairy roots exposed to mycelium extract was observed within 12 h after exposure to the elicitor. Also, fungal extract effects were followed by increasing in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity which peaked at 24 h by 1.37-fold greater than the control. The enhancing effect of fungal elicitor on lignans production was correlated with the increased in PAL activity and phenolic acids contents.
    Keywords: Hairy root ; Lignan ; Linum album ; Piriformospora indica ; Phenolic acid
    ISSN: 0167-6857
    E-ISSN: 1573-5044
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, September 2017, Vol.118, pp.98-106
    Description: is a very destructive plant pathogen. Selection of effective biological agents against this pathogen depends on more insight into molecular plant defence responses during the biocontrol agent-pathogen interaction. Auxin as a phytohormone is a key contributor in pathogenesis and plant defence and accumulation of auxin transport carriers are accompanied by increasing in flavonoid and miRNAs concentrations during plant interactions with bacteria. The aim of this research was molecular analysis of (ATCC21332) biocontrol effect against (IBRC-M10701) pathogen interacting with plants. Tobacco plants were either treated with both or one of the challenging bacteria and the expression of miRNAs inside the plants were analysed through qRT-PCR. The results indicated that the bacterial treatments affect expression level of nta-miRNAs. In tobacco plants treated only with the expression of nta-miR393 was more than that was recorded for nta-miR167 (3.8 folds, P 〈 0.05 in 3dpi). While the expression level of nta-miR167 was more than the expression of nta-miR393 in other treatments including tobacco plants treated only with (2.1 folds, P 〈 0.05) and the plants treated with both of the bacteria (3.9 folds, P 〈 0.05) in 3 dpi. Also, the composition and concentration of rutin, myrecetin, daidzein and vitexin flavanoid derivatives were detected using HPLC and analysed according the standard curves. All of the tested flavanoid compounds were highly detected in Tobacco plants which were only challenged with The amount of these compounds in the plants which were challenged with the alone, was similar to the amount recorded for the plants challenged with the both bacteria. This study suggests a relationship between the upregulation of nta-miR167, nta-miR393 and accumulation of flavanoid compounds. Overall, the expression of these miRNAs as well as flavonoid derivatives has the potential of being used as biomarkers for the interaction of and model system in .
    Keywords: Nta-Mirnas ; Flavanoids ; Agrobacterium Tumefaciens ; Bacillus Subtilis ; Botany ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0981-9428
    E-ISSN: 1873-2690
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, February 2019, Vol.135, pp.359-371
    Description: Hydrogen sulfide (H S) has been recently found as an important signaling molecule especially in root system architecture of plants. The regulation of root formation through H S has been reported in previous works; while the profiling of metabolites in response to H S is not clearly discussed. To this end, different concentrations of sodium hydrosulfide (an H S donor) were applied to the culture of hairy roots. Subsequently, the amino acid profiles, soluble carbohydrates, and central intermediates of phenylpropanoid pathway with two branches of lignans and flavonoids were assessed by spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography techniques. An analysis of the signaling molecules (nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and salicylic acid) was also conducted as they proposed to act in conjunction with H S. The H S activated antioxidant systems and caused a shift from flavonoid to lignan production (podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin); although, some of the flavonoids increased in a dose-dependent manner. The H S decreased the contents of phenylalanine and tyrosine as substrates of the phenylpropanoid pathway, but increased proline and histidine as an osmolyte and antioxidant, respectively. These findings propose that H S modulates other signaling molecules, regulates free amino acids, and mediates biosynthesis of lignans and flavonoids in the phenylpropanoids biosynthesis pathway.
    Keywords: Hairy Root ; Hydrogen Sulfide ; Linum Album ; Phenylpropanoid ; Signaling ; Botany ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0981-9428
    E-ISSN: 1873-2690
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Physiology, January 2019, Vol.232, pp.115-126
    Description: Schematic representation of down-regulation effect on phenylpropanoids. Lignans are diphenolic compounds produced in plants via coupling of two coniferyl alcohol molecules with the aid of a dirigent protein to form pinoresinol (PINO). The latter is reduced via lariciresinol (LARI) to secoisolariciresinol by the bifunctional pinoresinol–lariciresinol reductase (PLR). In this study, we clarified the consequences of altered lignan biosynthesis on amino acids, phenolics compounds and lignin in the hairy roots of with an ihpRNAi construct to silence gene expression. Down-regulation of resulted in up to an 8.3 and 3.3-time increased PINO and LARI content respectively, and reduced levels of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin (6-MPTOX). By Suppression of expression, the metabolites belonging to shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways are conducted to phenolic compounds and lignin accumulations. Although PINO and LARI were induced in response to fungal elicitor, the accumulation of PTOX and 6-MPTOX did not occur in down-regulated roots. Our result also demonstrated variation in amino acids, phenolic compounds and lignin levels in presence of the fungal elicitation in down regulated-roots. This data assert the accumulation of aryltetralin lignans in interactions with plant pathogens by PLR activity and the importance this enzyme for defense against pathogens in .
    Keywords: Pinoresinol ; 6-Methoxy Podophyllotoxin ; Fungal Elicitor ; Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase ; Linum Album ; Hairy Root ; Botany
    ISSN: 0176-1617
    E-ISSN: 16181328
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