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  • Schilling, Bernd  (10)
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  • 1
    In: Global Change Biology, February 2014, Vol.20(2), pp.653-665
    Description: Sequestration of atmospheric carbon (C) in soils through improved management of forest and agricultural land is considered to have high potential for global mitigation. However, the potential of soils to sequester soil organic carbon () in a stable form, which is limited by the stabilization of against microbial mineralization, is largely unknown. In this study, we estimated the C sequestration potential of soils in southeast Germany by calculating the potential saturation of silt and clay particles according to Hassink [ (1997) 77] on the basis of 516 soil profiles. The determination of the current content of silt and clay fractions for major soil units and land uses allowed an estimation of the C saturation deficit corresponding to the long‐term C sequestration potential. The results showed that cropland soils have a low level of C saturation of around 50% and could store considerable amounts of additional . A relatively high C sequestration potential was also determined for grassland soils. In contrast, forest soils had a low C sequestration potential as they were almost C saturated. A high proportion of sites with a high degree of apparent oversaturation revealed that in acidic, coarse‐textured soils the relation to silt and clay is not suitable to estimate the stable C saturation. A strong correlation of the C saturation deficit with temperature and precipitation allowed a spatial estimation of the C sequestration potential for Bavaria. In total, about 395 Mt CO‐equivalents could theoretically be stored in A horizons of cultivated soils – four times the annual emission of greenhouse gases in Bavaria. Although achieving the entire estimated C storage capacity is unrealistic, improved management of cultivated land could contribute significantly to mitigation. Moreover, increasing stocks have additional benefits with respect to enhanced soil fertility and agricultural productivity.
    Keywords: Agricultural Management ; Climate Change ; Mitigation ; Soil Organic Carbon Stocks ; Soil Fractionation ; Stabilization Of Soil Organic Matter
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 May 2013, Vol.295, pp.162-172
    Description: ► SOC storage and its drivers of different forest types in Bavaria were investigated. ► No SOC differences were found between broadleaf, coniferous and mixed forests. ► Temperature and precipitation controlled total SOC storage in forests. ► No decrease of mineral SOC of broadleaf/mixed forests in regions with high temperatures. ► Incorporation of broadleaf species to prevent future SOC losses of coniferous forests. Temperate forest soils of central Europe are regarded as important pools for soil organic carbon (SOC) and thought to have a high potential for carbon (C) sequestration. However, comprehensive data on total SOC storage, particularly under different forest types, and its drivers is limited. In this study, we analyzed a forest data set of 596 completely sampled soil profiles down to the parent material or to a depth of 1 m within Bavaria in southeast Germany in order to determine representative SOC stocks under different forest types in central Europe and the impact of different environmental parameters. We calculated a total median SOC stock of 9.8 kg m which is considerably lower compared with many other inventories within central Europe that used modelled instead of measured soil properties. Statistical analyses revealed climate as controlling parameter for the storage of SOC with increasing stocks in cool, humid mountainous regions and a strong decrease in areas with higher temperatures. No significant differences of total SOC storage were found between broadleaf, coniferous and mixed forests. However, coniferous forests stored around 35% of total SOC in the labile organic layer that is prone to human disturbance, forest fires and rising temperatures. In contrast, mixed and broadleaf forests stored the major part of SOC in the mineral soil. Moreover, these two forest types showed unchanged or even slightly increased mineral SOC stocks with higher temperatures, whereas SOC stocks in mineral soils under coniferous forest were distinctly lower. We conclude that mixed and broadleaf forests are more advantageous for C sequestration than coniferous forests. An intensified incorporation of broadleaf species in extent coniferous forests of Bavaria would prevent substantial SOC losses as a result of rising temperatures in the course of climate change.
    Keywords: Tree Species Effect ; Soil Organic Matter ; Climate Change ; Forest Management ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 3
    In: Global Change Biology, July 2012, Vol.18(7), pp.2233-2245
    Description: Precise estimations of soil organic carbon () stocks are of decided importance for the detection of C sequestration or emission potential induced by land use changes. For Germany, a comprehensive, land use–specific data set has not yet been compiled. We evaluated a unique data set of 1460 soil profiles in southeast Germany in order to calculate representative stocks to a depth of 1 m for the main land use types. The results showed that grassland soils stored the highest amount of , with a median value of 11.8 kg m, whereas considerably lower stocks of 9.8 and 9.0 kg m were found for forest and cropland soils, respectively. However, the differences between extensively used land (grassland, forest) and cropland were much lower compared with results from other studies in central European countries. The depth distribution of showed that despite low concentrations in A horizons of cropland soils, their stocks were not considerably lower compared with other land uses. This was due to a deepening of the topsoil compared with grassland soils. Higher grassland stocks were caused by an accumulation of in the B horizon which was attributable to a high proportion of C‐rich Gleysols within grassland soils. This demonstrates the relevance of pedogenetic inventories instead of solely land use–based approaches. Our study indicated that cultivation‐induced depletion was probably often overestimated since most studies use fixed depth increments. Moreover, the application of modelled parameters in inventories is questioned because a calculation of stocks using different pedotransfer functions revealed considerably biased results. We recommend stocks be determined by horizon for the entire soil profile in order to estimate the impact of land use changes precisely and to evaluate C sequestration potentials more accurately.
    Keywords: Carbon Sequestration ; Land Use Change ; Pedotransfer Function ; Soil Organic Matter ; Topsoil Deepening
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 15 August 2013, Vol.176, pp.39-52
    Description: Agricultural soils have a high potential for sequestration of atmospheric carbon due to their volume and several promising management options. However, there is a remarkable lack of information about the of organic carbon in agricultural soils. In this study a comprehensive data set of 384 cropland soils and 333 grassland soils within the state of Bavaria in southeast Germany was analyzed in order to provide representative information on total amount, regional distribution and driving parameters of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) in agricultural soils of central Europe. The results showed that grassland soils stored higher amounts of SOC (11.8 kg m ) and N (0.92 kg m ) than cropland soils (9.0 and 0.66 kg m , respectively) due to moisture-induced accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) in B horizons. Surprisingly, no distinct differences were found for the A horizons since tillage led to a relocation of SOM with depth in cropland soils. Statistical analyses of driving factors for SOM storage revealed soil moisture, represented by the topographic wetness index (TWI), as the most important parameter for both cropland and grassland soils. Climate effects (mean annual temperature and precipitation) were of minor importance in agricultural soils because management options counteracted them to a certain extent, particularly in cropland soils. The distribution of SOC and N stocks within Bavaria based on agricultural regions confirmed the importance of soil moisture since the highest cropland SOC and N stocks were found for tertiary hills and loess regions, which exhibited large areas with potentially high soil moisture content in extant floodplains. Grassland soils showed the highest accumulation of SOC and N in the Alps and Pre-Alps as a result of low temperatures, high amounts of precipitation and high soil moisture content in areas of glacial denudation. Soil class was identified as a further driving parameter for SOC and N storage in cropland soils. In total, cropland and grassland soils in Bavaria store 242 and 134 Mt SOC as well as 19 and 12 Mt N down to a soil depth of 1 m or the parent material, respectively.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon Stocks ; Topographic Wetness Index (Twi) ; Soil Moisture ; Carbon Sequestration ; Agricultural Soils ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 01 March 2014, Vol.185, pp.208-220
    Description: The management of soils as well as the impact of land use or climate changes are often evaluated in view of the storage of total soil organic carbon (SOC). However, as soil organic matter (SOM) is composed of different compounds with different degrees of stability and turnover times, there is the need for a soil- and land use-specific quantification of functional SOC pools. In this study, the amount of active, intermediate and passive SOC pools was determined for major soil types and land uses of Bavaria in southeast Germany. At 99 locations, soil horizons down to the parent material were fractionated according to the method of . The results showed that in cropland and grassland soils around 90% of total SOC stocks can be assigned to the intermediate and passive SOC pool. High SOC stocks in grassland soils are partly related to a higher degree of soil aggregation compared to cropland soils. The contribution of intermediate SOC in cropland soils was similar to that in grassland soils due to an increased proportion of SOM associated with silt and clay particles. The cultivation-induced loss of SOC due to aggregate disruption is at least partly compensated by increased formation of organo-mineral associations as a result of tillage that continuously promotes the contact of crop residues with reactive mineral surfaces. Contrary, forest soils were characterized by distinctly lower proportions of intermediate and passive SOC and a high amount of active SOC in form of litter and particulate organic matter which accounted for almost 40% of total SOC stocks. As both the amount of intermediate and passive SOC were lower in forest soils, we conclude that cropland and grassland soils may be more advantageous for long-term SOC storage in Bavaria. The high amount of labile SOC in forest topsoils poses the risk of considerable SOC losses caused by wildfire, mechanical disturbances or increasing temperatures.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Matter ; Soil Fractions ; Carbon Sequestration ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, March 2015, Vol.146, pp.296-302
    Description: Numerous studies have reported substantial changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks after converting forests into agricultural land and vice versa. However, some studies suggested that agricultural soils might contain similar amounts of SOC as forest soils. Losses of SOC induced by cultivation might be overestimated due to shallow soil sampling and application of inaccurate pedotransfer functions. We investigated the impact of different land uses on total SOC storage down to the subsoil on the basis of 270 soil profiles in southeast Germany under similar climatic and pedogenic conditions using an equivalent soil mass (ESM) approach. Land use effects on SOC storage were strongly affected by soil class, which comprised soil types with similar pedogenesis. Both slightly lower (〈20%) and even higher SOC stocks were found under cropland compared with forest land for different soil classes. A comparison of different soil classes under grassland and forest land also showed no considerable differences of SOC stocks. Soil cultivation may not generally be associated with a strong decline of SOC, as tillage probably promotes the formation of organo-mineral associations and a relocation of SOC with depth may decrease its decomposition. This finding should be taken into consideration when estimating and managing the emission and sequestration of C in soils. We assume that many studies based on topsoils alone may have underestimated agricultural SOC stocks, particularly when an ESM approach is used. Our results highlight the need for soil type-specific evaluations in terms of interpreting the effects of land use management on SOC stocks.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Carbon Sequestration ; Land Use Change ; Equivalent Soil Mass ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 7
    In: Scientific Reports, 2016, Vol.6
    Description: Climate change and stagnating crop yields may cause a decline of SOC stocks in agricultural soils leading to considerable CO2 emissions and reduced agricultural productivity. Regional model-based SOC projections are needed to evaluate these potential risks. In this study, we simulated the future SOC development in cropland and grassland soils of Bavaria in the 21(st) century. Soils from 51 study sites representing the most important soil classes of Central Europe were fractionated and derived SOC pools were used to initialize the RothC soil carbon model. For each site, long-term C inputs were determined using the C allocation method. Model runs were performed for three different C input scenarios as a realistic range of projected yield development. Our modelling approach revealed substantial SOC decreases of 11-16% under an expected mean temperature increase of 3.3 °C assuming unchanged C inputs. For the scenario of 20% reduced C inputs, agricultural SOC stocks are projected to decline by 19-24%. Remarkably, even the optimistic scenario of 20% increased C inputs led to SOC decreases of 3-8%. Projected SOC changes largely differed among investigated soil classes. Our results indicated that C inputs have to increase by 29% to maintain present SOC stocks in agricultural soils.
    Keywords: Biology;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma Regional, September 2014, Vol.1, pp.67-78
    Description: Precise estimations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks at large spatial scales are a precondition for national SOC inventories but challenging due to the high spatial variability of SOC. In this study, a comprehensive data set of 1460 soil profiles completely sampled down to the parent material or at least to a depth of 1 m was used to spatially predict SOC stocks for the state of Bavaria in southeast Germany using a geostatistical modeling approach. The model predicted SOC stocks of the main land uses cropland, grassland and forest with an explained variance of 52% of the total SOC variability within Bavaria. The most important factors, which control the spatial variability of SOC storage, were land use, soil type, soil moisture (indicated by the topographic wetness index) and climate (precipitation, temperature). An analysis of the generated SOC map showed that low to medium SOC stocks within the largest part of Bavaria were explained by land use whereas areas of high SOC stocks in floodplains along rivers, bogs and mountainous regions in the Alps and low mountain ranges were related to soil moisture, soil type and climate. A total SOC stock of 760 Mt was calculated for Bavaria with 223 Mt (29%) in cropland soils, 125 Mt (16%) in grassland soils, 257 Mt (34%) in forest soils, 7–29 Mt (1–4%) in bogs and 159 Mt (21%) under other land uses. In view of high SOC stocks in floodplains and mountainous areas, major anthropogenic disturbances of respective soils (e.g. intensification of the land use) should be avoided in these regions.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Soil Organic Matter ; Albeluvisol ; Cambisol ; Fluvisol ; Gleysol ; Histosol ; Leptosol ; Luvisol ; Planosol ; Podzol ; Regosol ; Stagnosol ; Vertisol
    ISSN: 2352-0094
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Agronomy, November 2014, Vol.61, pp.10-23
    Description: In agricultural soils, the formation of soil organic matter largely depends on the carbon (C) input by crop residues and rhizodeposition, which is thus of decisive importance for the management and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in cropland and grassland. However, there is a remarkable lack of reliable, crop-specific C input data. We used a plant C allocation approach to estimate the C input of major crops and grassland into agricultural soils of Bavaria in southeast Germany. Historic and recent plant C allocation coefficients were estimated and C inputs were calculated for a 60-year period (1951–2010) using long-term agricultural statistics. The spatial distribution of C inputs within Bavaria was derived from county-specific statistical data. The results revealed increases of the C input by 107–139% for cereals, 173–188% for root, forage and leguminous crops and 34% for grassland in the last 60 years. This increase was related to linear yield increases until 1995 despite significant changes of plant C allocation. However, from 1995 onwards, crop yields and related C inputs stagnated, which allowed a robust estimation of recent crop-specific C input values. A total C input of 3.8–6.7 t ha yr was estimated for cereals, 5.2–6.3 t ha yr for root, forage and leguminous crops and 2.4 t ha yr for grassland. These amounts were partly higher compared to estimations in the literature. A generally high spatial variability of C inputs was detected within Bavaria with differences of up to 40% between adjacent counties. The results of this study could be used to optimize the C input of crop rotations and thus promote the formation of soil organic matter and C sequestration in agricultural soils on the basis of a soil carbon model. Moreover, recent estimations of C inputs could be used to model the future development of agricultural SOC stocks. A further stagnation of crop yields and the related C input under an ongoing temperature increase bears the risk of a future decrease of SOC stocks in cropland soils of Bavaria.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Climate Change ; Crop Yield ; Root-to-Shoot Ratio ; Harvest Index ; Rhizodeposition ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1161-0301
    E-ISSN: 1873-7331
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2019, Vol.182(5), pp.772-781
    Description: Archived soil samples are a valuable tool for any long‐term soil research. We analysed total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content and soil organic matter fractions in 38 archived soil samples that were stored for up to 21 years and compared air‐dried storage to frozen storage conditions. Samples include top‐ and upper subsoils, different soil texture and land use with C contents between 4.3 and 174 mg g. The results from this study reveal no changes in total C and N contents with storage time up to 21 years or type of storage (freezing . air drying). The analyses of soil physical fractions also revealed no significant differences between air‐dried stored and frozen stored samples for most samples. However, we found indications, that freezing of soil material might lead to changes in the mineral fractions for soils containing high amounts of water. Therefore, and as archiving soils in a frozen state is more expensive than storing air‐dried samples, we recommend the use of air‐dried samples for C quality analyses of archived soil samples.
    Keywords: Density Fractionation ; Long‐Term Experiments ; Soil Archive ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Storage Conditions
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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