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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: 7th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling and the 4th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design; Book of Proceedings, p.1260-1278
    Description: The urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but potentially harmful compounds such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors - so-called xenobiotics. These substances are mainly carried by waste water. Up to now information with regard to their impact on the urban ecosystem and human health exist for only few of them. Within an interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution, we work on the identification of the fluxes of these substances. In a first step, we used a runoff formation model representing the city of Halle (Germany) and the Saale river. The Saale river acts as surface water system collecting slope inputs along the city traverse and sewer outflows. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using indicators such as hydrological parameters, selected complex organic substances, isotopic signatures and dissolved substances (sulphate, nitrate). A first balance modelling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the diffuse urban input into the river. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid), rare earth elements (gadolinium) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Various substance concentrations in groundwater along the city traverse showed increasing trends.
    Keywords: Water quality management ; Urban runoff--Management ; Groundwater--Pollution ; Water--Pollution ; Xenobiotics
    ISBN: 0646459031
    Source: Informit (RMIT Publishing)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 2007, Vol.41(15), pp.3259-3270
    Description: In this study, we used isotopic ( O, H, S-SO ) and chemical tracers (boron) to assess the sources and transport processes of the micropollutants carbamazepine, galaxolide, and bisphenol A in groundwater underlying the city of Halle (Saale), Germany. Their ubiquitous presence in urban groundwater results from a combination of local river water infiltration, sewer exfiltration, and urban stormwater recharge. Attenuation during transport with infiltrating river water increased from carbamazepine (0–60%) to galaxolide (60–80%) in accordance with their increasing sorption affinity and decreasing recalcitrance against biodegradation. Distinctly higher attenuation during transport was found for carbamazepine (85–100%) and galaxolide (95–100%) if micropollutants originated from sewer exfiltration. Most likely, this is related to higher contents of organic matter and higher transit times of the respective flow paths. Although attenuation undoubtedly also affects the transport of bisphenol A, quantification is limited due to additional contributions from the urban stormwater recharge. As a consequence, micropollutant loads in groundwater indicate that groundwater discharge may dominate the export of bisphenol A from urban areas.
    Keywords: Urban Groundwater ; Pharmaceuticals ; Personal Care Products ; Endocrine Disruptors ; Stable Isotopes ; Sewer Exfiltration ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle: Mass Flows, Environmental Processes, Mitigation and Treatment Strategies, pp.213-226
    Description: This chapter on urban water in large population centres like Halle/Saale and Leipzig (Germany) focuses on the source, distribution and transport behaviour of xenobiotics as indicator substances for anthropogenic impacts on urban water systems. The xenobiotics reported here are micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, personal care products (collectively known as PPCPs) and industrial chemicals, which show low concentrations in urban waters. Such chemicals can be endocrine disrupters or are otherwise eco-toxic. The concepts presented herein required a new methodology for assessing the impact of human activities on the urban water system and processes in urban watersheds. To this end, we used different approaches in relation to the hydrogeological and hydrodynamic settings of the cities of Halle and Leipzig. For the Halle urban area, a conceptual flow and transport model was developed based on interaction between the river Saale and groundwater, and mass fluxes were computed, based on water balance calculations. For Leipzig, as a first approach, we established a monitoring program that involved various urban land use types and investigated their influence on the urban water system. Multivariate statistics and integral pumping tests were applied to account for the spatially highly heterogeneous conditions and time-varying concentrations. At both sites, we demonstrated the use of indicators consisting of physico-chemical parameters, ions, isotopes and compound-specific patterns of xenobiotics. The chosen indicators of pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, redox conditions, nitrate, sulphate, chloride, boron, the isotopes of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and boron, as well as bisphenol A, carbamazepine, technical 4-nonylphenol (t-nonylphenol), galaxolide, tonalide, and gadolinium, helped to balance urban substance fluxes and assess urban effects on surface water quality. From our current quantification, it is clear that predicting contaminant behaviour in urban areas demands a detailed process understanding which cannot be derived from laboratory experiments or phenomenological analyses at the catchment scale. Through an installation of measuring equipment at the interfaces between the unsaturated and saturated zone as well as between ground- and surface water, in situ contaminant transport and fate can be quantified from the cm- up to the m-range.
    Keywords: Environment ; Environment, General ; Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution ; Ecotoxicology ; Environmental Monitoring/Analysis ; Environmental Chemistry ; Environmental Health ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISBN: 9789048135080
    ISBN: 9048135087
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2008, Vol.8(1), pp.23-33
    Description: Byline: Gerhard Strauch (1), Monika Moder (2), Rainer Wennrich (2), Karsten Osenbruck (3), Hans-Reinhard Glaser (1), Timo Schladitz (1), Claudia Muller (1), Kristin Schirmer (4), Frido Reinstorf (1), Mario Schirmer (1) Keywords: Carbamacepine; endocrine disrupters; gadolinium; indicators; stable isotopes; urban water; xenobiotics Abstract: Background, Aim and Scope Our study focuses on the indication of anthropogenic impacts on the urban surface and groundwater in large cities, demonstrated for the cities of Halle/Saale and Leipzig (Germany). For the study we selected indicator substances such as xenobiotics, trace elements, and stable isotopes which are connected to human activities in urban areas. The xenobiotics reported here are the pharmaceutical carbamacepine, the polycylic musk compounds galaxolide and tonalide, the life style product caffeine, and industrial chemicals such as bisphenol A and t-nonylphenol. The investigated xenobiotics pose largely unknown risks to human health and the aquatic ecosystem. Trace elements are represented by the rare earth element gadolinium (Gd), used as magnetic resonance imaging contrast substance. Nitrogen isotopes in dissolved nitrate characterize the origin of nitrogen compounds, mixing and reaction processes. Methodology River water was sampled along the flow path of the rivers Saale and Weisse Elster through the city of Halle/Saale, the rivers Luppe and Weisse Elster through the city of Leipzig. Separate samples were collected from the effluent of the local waste water treatment plants. Groundwater from Quaternary plain aquifers along the rivers and from different urban locations was collected at the same time. The indicators were analysed and assessed according to their sources, concentration and distribution patterns. Results and Discussion Based on the nitrogen isotopic signature, dissolved nitrate in river water of the Saale was referred mainly to two sources: the effluent of the water treatment plant and a mixture of diffusive inputs from rain water channels, sewage leakages and agriculture activities along the rivers. The Gd anomaly was recognized in surface water of both cities, particularly in the effluent of the water treatment plants, but clearly attenuated in groundwater. We measured concentrations of xenobiotics in river and sewer water between 10 and 60,000 ng L.sup.-1, and, in groundwater, one order of magnitude lower. Distinctions of xenobiotic patterns were found in river water before and after the effluent of treated waste water into the rivers. Degradation of endocrine disrupters and fragrances, but also persistence of carbamacepine were recognized as essential processes during waste water treatment. At the study site Halle/Saale, mass balances were set up for xenobiotics and water fluxes. Conclusions At both sites, we demonstrated that indicators such as xenobiotics, gadolinium, and nitrogen isotopes are suitable for assessing anthropogenic impacts on urban water. However, the behaviour of these indicators in surface and groundwater has to be considered according to the different geochemical environments. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Hydrogeology, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany (2) Deptartment of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany (3) Department of Isotope Hydrology, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120, Halle, Germany (4) Department of Cell Toxicology, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 03/03/2007 Received Date: 06/11/2006 Accepted Date: 11/06/2007 Online Date: 12/06/2007
    Keywords: Carbamacepine ; endocrine disrupters ; gadolinium ; indicators ; stable isotopes ; urban water ; xenobiotics
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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