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  • Schulz, Ralf  (29)
  • Chemistry
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, July 2013, Vol.92(5), pp.483-489
    Description: ► The invasive aquatic amphipod is more tolerant to lambda-cyhalothrin than the native one. ► Predation success on Baetis nymphs is substantially higher for than ► may contribute substantially to leaf litter decomposition. Invasive species are considered as one of the major threats for biodiversity worldwide. The Ponto-Caspian species , for instance, spread throughout continental Europe and was recorded for the first time also within Lake Constance in 2003. Although is a highly competitive species it was not capable of replacing the native completely in this ecosystem, especially in the riparian zones of the highly agriculturally used island “Reichenau”. As differences in pesticide sensitivity between both amphipod species may explain their distribution, the present study assessed the implication of the highly toxic pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, which is authorized for application in the Lake Constance region, assuming the invasive species being more sensitive than the native one. However, both the feeding activity bioassays, which measured the leaf consumption over 7 d ( = 20), as well as the predation bioassay, which measured the predation rate upon nymphs in concert with the feeding activity on leaf material over 96 h ( = 13), revealed an up to 5-fold higher tolerance of towards lambda-cyhalothrin. These results suggest the investigated insecticide not being the trigger for the observed distribution pattern of both amphipod species. Hence, other factors like the diversity of habitat structures or the levels of ammonia may have facilitated the coexistence. Nevertheless, the present study uncovered a high leaf-shredding efficacy of the invasive species suggesting that its role in the leaf decomposition process may have been underestimated in the past.
    Keywords: Functional Feeding Group ; Insecticide ; Leaf Litter Decomposition ; Ecosystem Function ; Predator–Prey Interaction ; Freshwater Biodiversity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.82(3), pp.355-361
    Description: Advanced oxidation technologies such as ozonation have been proposed to improve removal efficiency of micropollutants during wastewater treatment. In a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed literature, we found no ecotoxicological effects of wastewater ozonation on invertebrates ( = 82), but significant adverse effects on bacteria ( = 24) and fish ( = 5). As information on functional endpoints or trophic interactions is lacking, we applied a bioassay relating to leaf litter decomposition to fill this gap. Leaf discs exposed to ozone-treated wastewater with a high (1.04 mg O (mg DOC) , = 49) ozone concentration were significantly preferred by an aquatic detritivore, , over discs conditioned in wastewater not treated with ozone. This effect might have been mediated by reduced bacterial and elevated fungal biomass, and appears to be the first demonstration of wastewater ozonation impacts on invertebrates and an associated ecosystem process. In accordance with the food-choice trials, chemical analyses revealed significantly decreased concentrations of organic micropollutants in wastewater treated with ozone at high concentrations. Thus, food-choice trials as applied here hold promise to assess environmental effects of advanced oxidation technologies in wastewater treatment and appear to be a valuable complement to the ecotoxicological toolbox in general.
    Keywords: Food Choice ; Indirect Effects ; Gammaridae ; Litter Decomposition ; Biocides ; Psychoactive Drugs ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e20112
    Description: The production and use of nanoparticles (NP) has steadily increased within the last decade; however, knowledge about risks of NP to human health and ecosystems is still scarce. Common knowledge concerning NP effects on freshwater organisms is largely limited to standard short-term (≤48 h) toxicity tests, which lack both NP fate characterization and an understanding of the mechanisms underlying toxicity. Employing slightly longer exposure times (72 to 96 h), we found that suspensions of nanosized (∼100 nm initial mean diameter) titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) led to toxicity in Daphnia magna at nominal concentrations of 3.8 (72-h EC 50 ) and 0.73 mg/L (96-h EC 50 ). However, nTiO 2 disappeared quickly from the ISO-medium water phase, resulting in toxicity levels as low as 0.24 mg/L (96-h EC 50 ) based on measured concentrations. Moreover, we showed that nTiO 2 (∼100 nm) is significantly more toxic than non-nanosized TiO 2 (∼200 nm) prepared from the same stock suspension. Most importantly, we hypothesized a mechanistic chain of events for nTiO 2 toxicity in D. magna that involves the coating of the organism surface with nTiO 2 combined with a molting disruption. Neonate D. magna (≤6 h) exposed to 2 mg/L nTiO 2 exhibited a “biological surface coating” that disappeared within 36 h, during which the first molting was successfully managed by 100% of the exposed organisms. Continued exposure up to 96 h led to a renewed formation of the surface coating and significantly reduced the molting rate to 10%, resulting in 90% mortality. Because coating of aquatic organisms by manmade NP might be ubiquitous in nature, this form of physical NP toxicity might result in widespread negative impacts on environmental health.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Earth Sciences ; Materials Science ; Medicine ; Chemistry ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Marine And Aquatic Sciences ; Ecology ; Critical Care And Emergency Medicine ; Science Policy ; Biochemistry ; Non-clinical Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.85(10), pp.1563-1567
    Description: ► Effects of nTiO and ambient UV-irradiation affect representatives of detrital food webs. ► Accumulation of nTiO at the bottom of the test vessel seems to affect ecotoxicity. ► nTiO and ambient UV-irradiation increases ecotoxicity due to the formation of ROS. Production and use of engineered nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO ), is increasing worldwide, enhancing their probability to enter aquatic environments. However, direct effects of nTiO as well as ecotoxicological consequences due to the interactions of nTiO with environmental factors like ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on representatives of detrital food webs have not been assessed so far. Hence, the present study displayed for the first time adverse sublethal effects of nTiO at concentrations as low as 0.2 mg L on the leaf shredding amphipod both in presence and absence of ambient UV-irradiation following a 7-d exposure. In absence of UV-irradiation, however, the effects seemed to be driven by accumulation of nTiO at the bottom of the test vessels to which the gammarids were potentially exposed. The adverse sublethal and lethal effects on gammarids caused by the combined application of nTiO and ambient UV-irradiation are suggested to be driven by the formation of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, both the accumulation of nTiO at the bottom of the test vessel and the UV induced formation of reactive oxygen species clearly affected its ecotoxicity, which is recommended for consideration in the environmental risk assessment of nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Nanoparticle ; Titanium Dioxide ; Ultraviolet Irradiation ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Accumulation ; Reactive Oxygen Species ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, July 2014, Vol.107, pp.13-22
    Description: Quantitative information on the processes leading to the retention of plant protection products (PPPs) in surface waters is not available, particularly for flow-through systems. The influence of aquatic vegetation on the hydraulic- and sorption-mediated mitigation processes of three PPPs (triflumuron, pencycuron, and penflufen; log 3.3–4.9) in 45-m slow-flowing stream mesocosms was investigated. Peak reductions were 35–38% in an unvegetated stream mesocosm, 60–62% in a sparsely vegetated stream mesocosm (13% coverage with ), and in a similar range of 57–69% in a densely vegetated stream mesocosm (100% coverage). Between 89% and 93% of the measured total peak reductions in the sparsely vegetated stream can be explained by an increase of vegetation-induced dispersion (estimated with the one-dimensional solute transport model OTIS), while 7–11% of the peak reduction can be attributed to sorption processes. However, dispersion contributed only 59–71% of the peak reductions in the densely vegetated stream mesocosm, where 29% to 41% of the total peak reductions can be attributed to sorption processes. In the densely vegetated stream, 8–27% of the applied PPPs, depending on the log values of the compounds, were temporarily retained by macrophytes. Increasing PPP recoveries in the aqueous phase were accompanied by a decrease of PPP concentrations in macrophytes indicating kinetic desorption over time. This is the first study to provide quantitative data on how the interaction of dispersion and sorption, driven by aquatic macrophytes, influences the mitigation of PPP concentrations in flowing vegetated stream systems.
    Keywords: Pesticide ; Plant Protection Product ; Dispersion ; Sorption ; Vegetated Stream Mesoscosms ; Tracer ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2001, Vol.45(4), pp.543-551
    Description: Spray drift and edge-of-field runoff are regarded as important routes of nonpoint-source pesticide input into aquatic surface waters, with current regulatory risk assessment in Europe focussing largely on spray drift. However, the two routes of entry had rarely been compared directly in the same catchment. To this end, the concentrations and loads of the current-use insecticides azinphos-methyl (AZP) and endosulfan (END) were monitored in the Lourens River, South Africa downstream of a 400-ha fruit orchard area during normal farming practice. Spray drift-related peak pesticide levels in the tributaries were in the range of 95th-percentiles of standard drift values according to regulatory risk assessment procedures. Resulting concentrations in Lourens River water samples (n = 3) at a discharge of 0.28 m super(3)/s were as high as 0.04 plus or minus 0.01 mu g/l AZP and 0.07 plus or minus 0.02 mu g/l END. Pesticide levels at the same site during runoff following 3 storm events varying in rainfall between 6.8 and 18.4 mm/d (discharge: 7.5-22.4 m super(3)/s) were considerably higher: by factors between 6 and 37 for AZP (0.26-1.5 mu g/l) and between 2 and 41 for END (0.13-2.9 mu g/l). Levels of pesticides associated with suspended particles were increased during runoff only up to 1247 mu g/kg AZP and 12082 mu g/kg END. A possible reason for the relative importance of runoff is that runoff largely integrates potential pesticide input over both time and space, because the prerequisites for the occurrence of runoff in terms of application and plot characteristics as well as meteorological conditions are far less specific than for spray drift. A probability analysis based on pesticide application patterns and 10-yr rainfall data indicates that the frequencies of rainfall events greater than or equal to 10 and greater than or equal to 15 mm/d are 3.4 and 1.7 per spraying season, respectively.
    Keywords: Catchment ; Exposure Assessment ; Insecticides ; Nonpoint-Source Pollution ; Orchards ; Runoff ; Spray Drift ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical Genetics, 2013, Vol.51(5), pp.406-412
    Description: Byline: Karolina Kolodziej (1), Ivan Nikolov (2), Holger K. Schulz (1), Kathrin Theissinger (1), Ralf Schulz (1) Author Affiliation: (1) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829, Landau, Germany (2) Molecular Zoology, Institute of Zoology, Technical University of Munich, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354, Freising, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 12/01/2013 Received Date: 02/05/2012 Accepted Date: 06/09/2012 Online Date: 05/02/2013
    Keywords: Genetic Research -- Methods ; Genetic Research -- Analysis ; Dna -- Methods ; Dna -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0006-2928
    E-ISSN: 1573-4927
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, 15 January 2013, Vol.126, pp.163-168
    Description: ► nTiO concentrations one order of magnitude above the PEC caused adverse chronic effects. ► Particle size and product composition, i.e. crystalline structure, trigger differences in nTiO toxicity. ► nTiO accumulation at the bottom of the test vessel is an important effect pathway. ► Dissolved organic carbon influences fate and finally nTiO toxicity. The increasing use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO ) inevitably results in their release into the environment, raising concerns about potential adverse effects in wildlife. By following standard test protocols, several studies investigated the ecotoxicity of nTiO among others to . These studies indicated a large variability – several orders of magnitude – in the response variables. However, other factors, like nanoparticle characteristics and test design, potentially triggering these differences, were largely ignored. Therefore, the present study assessed the chronic ecotoxicity of two nTiO products with varying crystalline structure (A-100; P25) to . A semi-static and a flow-through exposure scenario were compared, ensuring that both contained environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Utilizing the semi-static test design, a concentration as low as 0.06 mg/L A-100 (∼330 nm) significantly reduced the reproduction of daphnia indicating environmental risk. In contrast, no implication in the number of released offspring was observed during the flow-through experiment with A-100 (∼140 nm). Likewise, P25 (∼130 nm) did not adversely affect reproduction irrespective of the test design utilized. Given the present study's results, the particle size, the product composition, i.e. the crystalline structure, and the accumulation of nTiO at the bottom of the test vessel – the latter is relevant for a semi-static test design – may be suggested as factors potentially triggering differences in nTiO toxicity to . Hence, these factors should be considered to improve environmental risk assessment of nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Inorganic Nanoparticles ; Reproduction ; Growth ; Flow-through ; Crustacea ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1514
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, 2014, Vol.150, pp.133-143
    Description: Fungicides are frequently applied in agriculture and are subsequently detected in surface waters in total concentrations of up to several tens of micrograms per liter. These concentrations imply potential effects on aquatic communities and fundamental ecosystem functions such as leaf litter breakdown....
    Keywords: Other Biological Topics ; Annan Biologi
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    E-ISSN: 18791514
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, February 2017, Vol.183, pp.46-53
    Description: Selection of appropriate test species is a critical issue when assessing effects of environmental contamination on fish because the ecological relevance of commonly used test species might be restricted due to their exotic origin. In the present study, a European freshwater fish with frequent occurrence in agricultural areas is suggested as a potential alternative: the European weatherfish ( ). Its suitability for acute embryo toxicity tests (FET) was investigated with regard to practical implementation, sensitivity to contaminants and tolerance against environmental conditions of concern. For this purpose, weatherfish embryos were exposed (72 h) to the reference substance 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) in three independent tests. Furthermore, the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) deficiency on weatherfish embryos were studied to evaluate their suitability e.g. for sediment bioassays. Obtained results revealed that the sensitivity of weatherfish embryos towards DCA (72 h-EC = 0.52 mg/l; 72 h-LC = 0.71 mg/l) was highest compared to other species and three times higher than that reported for the commonly used zebrafish ( ). Even though knowledge of DO requirements during the embryonic period of European fish species is scarce, weatherfish can be stated as one of the most tolerant native species (LC for DO = 0.53 mg/l after 48 h exposure plus 72 h post-exposure). Its high ecological relevance for Europe, the particular sensitivity towards DCA and high tolerance against DO depletion highlight the potential of weatherfish as additional species for toxicity testing.
    Keywords: Fish Embryo Toxicity Test ; 3,4-Dichloroaniline ; Dissolved Oxygen Requirements ; Alternative Test Method ; Early Life Stages ; Sediment Toxicity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1514
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