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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(8), p.e43709
    Description: Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys ( Callithrix jacchus) to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ). LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Veterinary Science ; Immunology ; Pharmacology ; Respiratory Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(11), p.e0207767
    Description: Subgroups of patients with severe asthma are insensitive to inhaled corticosteroids and require novel therapies on top of standard medical care. IL-13 is considered one of the key cytokines in the asthma pathogenesis, however, the effect of IL-13 was mostly studied in rodents. This study aimed to assess IL-13 effect in human lung tissue for the development of targeted therapy approaches such as inhibition of soluble IL-13 or its receptor IL-4Rα subunit. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from lungs of rodents, non-human primates (NHP) and humans. Direct effect of IL-13 on human lung tissue was observed on inflammation, induction of mucin5AC, and airway constriction induced by methacholine and visualized by videomicroscopy. Anti-inflammatory treatment was evaluated by co-incubation of IL-13 with increasing concentrations of IL-13/IL-13 receptor inhibitors. IL-13 induced a two-fold increase in mucin5AC secretion in human bronchial tissue. Additionally, IL-13 induced release of proinflammatory cytokines eotaxin-3 and TARC in human PCLS. Anti-inflammatory treatment with four different inhibitors acting either on the IL-13 ligand itself (anti-IL-13 antibody, similar to Lebrikizumab) or the IL-4Rα chain of the IL-13/IL-4 receptor complex (anti-IL-4Rα #1, similar to AMG 317, and #2, similar to REGN668) and #3 PRS-060 (a novel anticalin directed against this receptor) could significantly attenuate IL-13 induced inflammation. Contrary to this, IL-13 did not induce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in human and NHP PCLS, although it was effective in rodent PCLS. Overall, this study demonstrates that IL-13 stimulation induces production of mucus and biomarkers of allergic inflammation in human lung tissue ex-vivo but no airway hyperresponsiveness. The results of this study show a more distinct efficacy than known from animals models and a clear discrepancy in AHR induction. Moreover, it allows a translational approach in inhibitor profiling in human lung tissue.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Medical Primatology, April 2013, Vol.42(2), pp.79-88
    Description: Keywords: Clara cell secretory protein; electron microscopy; goblet cell; mixed type secretory cell; mucin Abstract Background The objective of this investigation was to define the phenotype and spatial distribution of Clara cells within the respiratory tract of common marmosets and to distinguish them from other non-ciliated cells (goblet cells, mixed type secretory cells). Methods Non-ciliated cells were identified immunohistochemically using antibodies against Clara cell secretory protein and mucin 5AC. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were performed to characterize Clara cells ultrastructurally. Results Clara cells were present throughout the tracheobronchial tree, with lowest numbers in the trachea and highest numbers in bronchioles. Goblet cells and mixed type cells were scarce in the upper conducting airways and virtually absent within bronchioles. Ultrastructurally, Clara cells showed typical apical electron-dense granules and a prominent granular endoplasmatic reticulum. Conclusions Clara cells of common marmosets have species-specific morphological characteristics, which suggest grouping the common marmoset phenotypically between primates and rodents. Author Affiliation:
    Keywords: Clara Cell Secretory Protein ; Electron Microscopy ; Goblet Cell ; Mixed Type Secretory Cell ; Mucin
    ISSN: 0047-2565
    E-ISSN: 1600-0684
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