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  • Singh, J  (11,011)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 July 2011, Vol.110(2)
    Description: Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a γ -ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 November 2012, Vol.112(10)
    Description: In this study, we examined the low substrate temperature ( T s ) growth mechanism of Ag thin films in the atomic shadowing regime ( T s ≪ melting point T m ). The Ag thin films were deposited using glancing angle deposition (GLAD) at different substrate temperatures varying from 320 K to 100 K. Interestingly, it is observed that on lowering the substrate temperature instead of showing a monotonic variation, the Ag film morphology changes from the ordered nanocolumns to random and distorted columns, and then to the columnar bunches of nanowires. These growth results suggest that this temperature regime of effective adatom shadowing does not hold a unique growth mechanism for the GLAD within the low temperature range from 320 K to 100 K and depending on the observed temperature dependent variation in morphological and structural properties of the Ag film, it can be sub-divided into three characteristic zones. The observed growth mechanism of the Ag film is explained in terms of the temperature dependent change in terrace diffusion and the interlayer diffusion of Ag adatoms which finally controls the formation of nucleation centers in initial stage and their evolution during the final growth. The understanding of low temperature growth mechanism along with the identification of appropriate temperature range for the growth of nanocolumnar metallic films during GLAD is the novelty in this work.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron Letters, 22 January 2014, Vol.55(4), pp.903-909
    Description: The copper-catalyzed ‘click silylation’ has been exploited for the chemical modification of γ-azidopropyltriethoxysilane (AzPTES) with a wide range of terminal alkynes ( – ) in a one-pot operation. The novel 1,2,3-triazole-triethoxysilane derivatives ( – ) were synthesized by this procedure and comprehensively characterized by IR spectra, H and C NMR, and HRMS studies.
    Keywords: Triethoxysilane ; Click Silylation ; Functional Alkyne ; Heterocycle ; [Cubr(Pph3)3] ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    E-ISSN: 1873-3581
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron Letters, 08 January 2014, Vol.55(2), pp.525-527
    Description: A simple, green, and efficient protocol is reported for the preparation of aryl-7,8-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3- ]-pyrimidine-6-carbonitriles through one-pot multi component reaction using substituted aromatic aldehydes, malononitrile, and 3-amino[1,2,4]triazole. The reaction is catalyzed by boric acid in aqueous micellar condition. Present protocol incorporates environmentally non-hazardous reaction condition, easy work-up, and use of recyclable catalytic system with associated benefits like excellent yield (84–96%) and shorter reaction time (20 min). Proposed methodology offers rapid access to substituted aryl-7,8-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3- ]pyrimidine-6-carbonitriles with high atom-economy and catalytic efficiency.
    Keywords: Triazolopyrimidine ; Boric Acid ; Aqueous Micellar Medium ; Atom Economy ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    E-ISSN: 1873-3581
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron, 09 September 2015, Vol.71(36), pp.6143-6147
    Description: We synthesized a dinuclear Cu(II) paddle-wheel complex containing a benzimidazolium ligand and explored using it as a fluorescence turn-ON sensor for detecting phosphates in water. The sensor exhibited both fluorescence and electrochemical responses to phosphates with high selectivity and sensitivity over other anions, which makes it useful for the detection of harmful organophosphates.
    Keywords: Sensors ; Inorganic–Organic Hybrid Polymer ; Fluorescence Spectroscopy ; Electrochemistry ; Molecular Recognition ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    E-ISSN: 1464-5416
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Forensic Science International, 10 May 2013, Vol.228(1-3), pp.174.e1-174.e10
    Description: Forensic anthropologists have proposed different sex determination methods based on metric and non-metric skeletal features of various bones. The main objective of the present investigation was to evaluate sexual dimorphism in human sternum and make comparative analysis based on studies by several workers who used different methodologies and techniques. For this study, 343 sternums were collected and examined from 252 male and 91 female cadavers of a north Indian population. Significant differences were noticed between the mean sternal measurements measured directly on bone specimens in present study and those measured indirectly on radiographs or CT scan images reported by previous researchers. Comparative analysis of absolute sternal measurements showed concordance with some earlier Indian studies but discordance with most other population studies conducted worldwide. Limiting points gave much higher sex accuracy levels than the demarking points. The calculated multivariate DFA equation ( = −14.222 + 0.076MBL + 0.137WS_1) and regression equation ( = 36.675 − 0.198MBL − 0.405WS_1) correctly estimated sex of 84.8% and 89.8% sternums, respectively. Multivariate analyses gave more striking results than the univariate ones. Though logistic regression analysis gave higher accuracy rates but discriminant function analysis was found to be a more reliable statistical tool for sex determination because of low sex biases. The sexing efficacies of the dry and wet sternums did not differ significantly, so bone specimens are equally reliable as the radiographs or CT scans for sex determination. The sternal area and the combined length were found the best parameters among all the criteria and methods considered. The changes in the body proportions, nutritional, environmental, climatic changes, etc., are attributable to secular changes in sterna measurements when compared to Jit et al. . The osteometric techniques are better representative of biological identity of the deceased because of some inherent defects associated with radiographic methods. Like other sex-predictive bones of the human skeleton, the sternum can also be a valuable adjunct for sex determination of unknown subjects.
    Keywords: Forensic Anthropology Population Data ; Sternum ; Sexing Methods and Statistical Techniques ; Discriminant Function Analysis ; Logistic Regression Analysis ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0379-0738
    E-ISSN: 1872-6283
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Forensic Science International, 10 May 2013, Vol.228(1-3), pp.181.e1-181.e12
    Description: Nonmetric traits are quasi-continuous skeletal traits that cannot be measured, but are observed as ranks or scores. In the present study, 8 nonmetric traits of sternum were examined from 343 sternums collected from the autopsy cases. More males, particularly older subjects, had a mesosternal foramen. The frequency of mesosternal foramen, arch-shaped prominence on the manubrium and radial strips on mesosternum significantly increased but that of lateral projection of manubrium decreased in the 30+ year age-group (older individuals). The denticulate costal incisures were found mostly in females and younger subjects; however, the crescent incisures and arch shaped prominence of manubrium were noticed mainly in males and older subjects. Majority of subjects had ‘deep and narrow’ jugular notch and xiphi-sternum was ‘bifid’ or ‘oblong’ in males and ‘small sized’ in females and younger subjects. Xiphi-sternum was generally found absent in females and younger subjects. The different shapes of costal incisures, jugular notch and xiphoid process were found to have significant sex and age differences. The number of cases with fused elements significantly increased with advancing age in both sexes. The sternal elements’ fusion showed a variable pattern and hence was not found to be a reliable criterion. Chi-square analysis revealed significant differences between two age-groups of individual sex in the distribution of 3 of the 8 nonmetric traits. Significant sex and age differences were noticed in the frequency of occurrence of mesosternal foramina between the younger and older age groups in both the sexes. The logistic regression analysis of the scores classified 73.8% sternums to their sex category and 70.0% sternums to their age-group. Though present findings may not be enough for absolute personal identification, these traits can still serve as important identification tools if antemortem radiographs/CT or MRI scans are available for comparisons, or help classify an unknown sternum to its sex or age category based on the morphological features discussed in present study.
    Keywords: Forensic Anthropology ; Sternum ; Nonmetric Traits ; Frequency ; Sex and Age-Dependency ; Forensic Identification ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0379-0738
    E-ISSN: 1872-6283
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Medical Hypotheses, 2011, Vol.77(1), pp.147-151
    Description: Sexual dimorphism in the prevalence of migraine (70% women 30% men) suggests the involvement of reproductive hormones in a women’s life. Excessive estrogen during menstruation directly stimulate estrogen receptor alpha thickly populated in trigeminal ganglia and periaqueductal gray which manifest as menstrual migraine. In contrast increased progesterone during pregnancy evokes progesterone receptors A/B, which coexist with ERs, providing complete remission from migraine episodes. Moreover, estrogen also increases nociception through extracellularly signal-regulated kinase (ERK) stimulation and down-regulating antinociceptive GABA, IL-R1 and Zn-fingers. Hormones may provoke migraine indirectly by disrupting mineral homeostasis. Estrogen enhances the absorption and half-life of copper which in turn inhibits the absorption of zinc. Zinc is required for the synthesis of melatonin and CoQ10 essential for growing women. Excess of copper exacerbates the deficiency of zinc, melatonin and CoQ10 typically low in migraineurs. Melatonin is an antioxidant, free radical scavenger and activates antioxidant enzymes like CuZn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (a Se-enzyme) and glutathione reductase. Zinc deficiency reduces activity of CuZn-SOD. Magnesium and vitamin B6 modulates the level of NO in the cell, both of which are deficient in migraineurs. Magnesium is essential for the removal of trapped NO from within the cell which does not occur under low magnesium levels, which reacts with superoxide generating dangerous peroxynitrite. Iron stimulates nitric oxide synthase producing more NO which is inhibited by zinc, thus, antagonizing peroxynitrite generation. Female hormones lowers magnesium but increase calcium levels which enhance migraine ubiquitousness. Accumulation of copper and iron in deep areas of brain and peripheral nerves typically catalyses the oxidation of catecholamines and generate free radicals involved in lipid-peroxidation, demyelination, denudation of axons and neurodegeneration in specific areas exposing hyperalgesic axons provoking Classical migraine. Furthermore, zinc is an essential component of Zn-fingers ( and ) which play a pivotal role in the differentiation of Schwann cells-the mainstay for the myelination/remyelination of peripheral nerves. Taken together, conceptually and logically, 30 migraineurs were administered 75 mg of zinc sulfate orally in water daily for 6 weeks + one capsule of vitamin B-complex + one capsule of vitamin A or E (first 10 days) which almost cured all of them. Placebo controlled trials with incremental doses of zinc sulfate along with magnesium and selenium are proposed to augment recovery involving large population of migraineurs. Monitoring of hair and blood mineral analysis for rational therapy is recommended.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0306-9877
    E-ISSN: 1532-2777
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Ethics, 2016, Vol.138(2), pp.311-326
    Description: An important aspect of brand perception emanates from its corporate social responsibility (CSR) activity. When two brands involved in CSR activities form a cobranding alliance, their respective CSR perceptions can impact consumer attitudes toward the alliance. As an ethically-oriented strategy, the alliance can be potentially beneficial to both partner brands, and can create opportunities for promoting CSR activities. The research streams on brand management, cobranding, and CSR, however, are silent about this important branding strategy that has several embedded business and societal benefits. This study examines how CSR-based consumer perceptions and ethical self-identity impact consumer evaluation of cobrands. Employing a quasi-experimental between-subjects design, the study tests six cobranding scenarios in three product categories. The data were collected via structured questionnaires resulting in 318 valid responses. The data were analyzed employing Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling. The results confirm that positive CSR perceptions toward the partner brands are robust indicators of attitudes toward cobrands. Further, the match between the CSR activities of the partner brands (positive CSR fit) and the product categories (product fit) influences cobrand attitudes. The results also show evidence of ‘spill-over’ effects, where the alliance has a positive impact on subsequent CSR perceptions toward the partner brands. Additionally, the findings demonstrate an asymmetry in the effects of the cobrand on subsequent CSR perceptions wherein consumers with low ethical self-identity show greater spill-over effects from the cobrand than those with high ethical self-identity. The study contributes to knowledge in the domains of business ethics, cobranding, and social responsibility. The findings have managerial implications for designing CSR-based ethical branding strategies for cobrands.
    Keywords: Corporate social responsibility ; Cobranding ; Ethical self-identity ; Partial least squares structural equation modeling ; Spill-over effects
    ISSN: 0167-4544
    E-ISSN: 1573-0697
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  • 10
    In: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, November 2015, Vol.63(11), pp.2432-2434
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jgs.13808/abstract Byline: Jade Singh, Morven McElroy,Terence J. Quinn ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    Keywords: Elderly;
    ISSN: 0002-8614
    E-ISSN: 1532-5415
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