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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2011, Vol.200(1), pp.53-60
    Description: Influenza A virus infection of macrophages and virus-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression are regarded to contribute to severity of influenza A virus-caused diseases. Although some data are available on cytokine production by influenza A virus-infected macrophages, systematic comparisons of the virus types are currently considered to be of high relevance in humans (pandemic H1N1/2009, seasonal H1N1, seasonal H3N2, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1) on pro-inflammatory potential, and relevant underlying cellular signalling events are missing. Here, we show that the infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages with pandemic H1N1/2009 (A/HH/01/2009), seasonal H1N1/1999 (A/New Caledonia/20/99), seasonal H3N2/2004 (A/California/7/2004) or highly pathogenic H5N1/2004 (A/Thailand/1(Kan-1)/04) results in similar infection rates. However, the investigated H1N1 strains caused delayed and decreased apoptosis in comparison with H3N2/2004 or H5N1/2004. Moreover, human macrophage infection with H3N2/2004 or H5N1/2004 but not with H1N1 viruses was associated with pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation of relevant mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as indicated by phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK 1/2. These findings are in line with clinical observations indicating enhanced disease severity in H3N2- or H5N1-infected patients compared to individuals infected with pandemic H1N1/2009 or seasonal H1N1.
    Keywords: Influenza A ; MAPK ; Cytokines ; Seasonal influenza ; H5N1 ; Pandemic H1N1/2009
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e19705
    Description: Glycyrrhizin is known to exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of an approved parenteral glycyrrhizin preparation (Stronger Neo-Minophafen C) were investigated on highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 virus replication, H5N1-induced apoptosis, and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial (A549) cells. Therapeutic glycyrrhizin concentrations substantially inhibited H5N1-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules CXCL10, interleukin 6, CCL2, and CCL5 (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 25 to 50 µg/ml) but interfered with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 100 µg/ml or higher). Glycyrrhizin also diminished monocyte migration towards supernatants of H5N1-infected A549 cells. The mechanism by which glycyrrhizin interferes with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression includes inhibition of H5N1-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and (in turn) reduced activation of NFκB, JNK, and p38, redox-sensitive signalling events known to be relevant for influenza A virus replication. Therefore, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Infectious Diseases ; Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2010, Vol.199(4), pp.291-297
    Description: Hypercytokinaemia is thought to contribute to highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus disease. Glycyrrhizin is known to exert immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and therefore a candidate drug for the control of H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression. Here, the effects of an approved parenteral glycyrrhizin preparation were investigated on H5N1 virus replication, H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory responses, and H5N1-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Glycyrrhizin 100 μg/ml, a therapeutically achievable concentration, impaired H5N1-induced production of CXCL10, interleukin 6, and CCL5 and inhibited H5N1-induced apoptosis but did not interfere with H5N1 replication. Global inhibition of immune responses may result in the loss of control of virus replication by cytotoxic immune cells including natural killer cells and cytotoxic CD8 + T-lymphocytes. Notably, glycyrrhizin concentrations that inhibited H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression did not affect cytolytic activity of natural killer cells. Since H5N1-induced hypercytokinaemia is considered to play an important role within H5N1 pathogenesis, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease.
    Keywords: Glycyrrhizin ; H5N1 ; Cytokines ; Monocyte-derived macrophages
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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