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  • Sperlich, Billy  (15)
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  • 1
    In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2015, Vol.40(6), pp.634-635
    Description: Reply to "Discussion: The kinetics of blood lactate in boys during and following a single and repeated all-out sprints of cycling are different than in men - Do children indeed release and remove lactate faster than adults?"
    Keywords: Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Recreation & Sports;
    ISSN: 1715-5312
    E-ISSN: 1715-5320
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2016, Vol.46(12), pp.1939-1952
    Description: BACKGROUND: Runners at various levels of performance and specializing in different events (from 800m to marathons) wear compression socks, sleeves, shorts, and/or tights in attempt to improve their performance and facilitate recovery. Recently, a number of publications reporting contradictory results with regard to the influence of compression garments in this context have appeared.OBJECTIVES: To assess original research on the effects of compression clothing (socks, calf sleeves, shorts, and tights) on running performance and recovery.METHOD: A computerized research of the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science was performed in September of 2015, and the relevant articles published in peer-reviewed journals were thus identified rated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Studies examining effects on physiological, psychological, and/or biomechanical parameters during or after running were included, and means and measures of variability for the outcome employed to calculate Hedges'g effect size and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparison of experimental (compression) and control (non-compression) trials.RESULTS: Compression garments exerted no statistically significant mean effects on running performance (times for a (half) marathon, 15-km trail running, 5- and 10-km runs, and 400-m sprint), maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentrations, blood gas kinetics, cardiac parameters (including heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, and stroke volume), body and perceived temperature, or the performance of strength-related tasks after running. Small positive effect sizes were calculated for the time to exhaustion (in incremental or step tests), running economy (including biomechanical variables), clearance of blood lactate, perceived exertion, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and peak leg muscle power immediately after running, and markers of muscle damage and inflammation. The body core temperature was moderately affected by compression, while the effect size values for post-exercise leg soreness and the delay in onset of muscle fatigue indicated large positive effects.CONCLUSION: Our present findings suggest that by wearing compression clothing, runners may improve variables related to endurance performance (i.e., time to exhaustion) slightly, due to improvements in running economy, biomechanical variables, perception, and muscle temperature. They should also benefit from reduced muscle pain, damage, and inflammation.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2016, Vol.116(11), pp.2177-2186
    Description: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes.Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min−1 kg−1 peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90–95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output). The levels of sC, sT, their ratio (sT/sC) and sAA were determined before and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after each intervention. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress was characterized by blood lactate, blood pH, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake ( $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ), ventilation (V E) and ventilatory equivalent (V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ).sC increased 30 and 60 min after HIIT. However, 180 min post exercise, sC decreased below baseline levels in both conditions. sT increased 0 and 30 min after HIIT and 0 min after HVT. sAA and sT/sC ratio did not change significantly over time in HIIT nor HVT. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress, evidenced by blood lactate, HR, $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 , V E, and V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 was higher during HIIT compared to HVT.The metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress during HIIT was higher compared to HVT, but based on salivary analyses (cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase), we conclude no strong acute catabolic effects neither by HIIT nor by HVT.
    Keywords: Saliva ; Cortisol ; Testosterone ; Alpha-amylase ; Exercise
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 2014, Vol.164(11), pp.228-238
    Description: Um die Effektivität von (Hoch-)inten­sivem Intervalltraining (HIIT) im Nachwuchsleistungssport und bei untrainierten gesunden Kindern und Jugendlichen in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur einzuschätzen, wurde eine computerbasierte Literaturrecherche in den elektronischen Datenbanken PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus und Web of Science durchgeführt. Studien, welche die Auswirkungen von HIIT-Interventionen auf die Leistungsfähigkeit von Kindern und Jugendlichen (9–18 Jahre) anhand von Analysen der motorischen oder leistungsphysiologischen Kenngrößen der Probanden, vor und nach der Trainingsintervention, analysierten, wurden berücksichtigt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine Verbesserung aerober und anaerober Leistungsparameter bei einer Anwendung von zwei bis drei Einheiten HIIT pro Woche über einen Zeitraum von fünf bis zehn Wochen, zusätzlich zum normalen Training. Langzeitstudien zu HIIT, welche auf langfristige Trainingseffekte hinweisen, fehlen. Darüber hinaus wurde aufgrund von physiologischen Besonderheiten während HIIT-Protokollen eine verbesserte Ermüdungsresistenz bei Kindern im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen belegt, was als gute Voraussetzung für die Anwendbarkeit von HIIT bei Kindern interpretiert werden kann. A computer-based literature research during July 2013 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed to assess the effect of the high intensity interval training (HIIT) on sport performance in healthy children and adolescents. Studies examining the effect of HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic performance pre and post to HIIT-Interventions in children and adolescents (9–18 years) were included. The results indicate increased aerobic and anaerobic performance following two or three HIIT sessions per week for a period of five to ten weeks, additional to normal training. Results regarding long term effects following HIIT have not been documented so far. In addition, due to the physiological characteris-tics during HIIT protocols improved fatigue resistance has been demonstrated in children as compared to adults, which may be interpreted as a prerequisite for the applicability of HIIT in children.
    Keywords: High intensity training ; Endurance ; Adaptions ; Children and adolescents ; Performance improvements
    ISSN: 0043-5341
    E-ISSN: 1563-258X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Physiology, 01 July 2018, Vol.9
    Description: Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is as a time-efficient alternative to moderate- or low-intensity continuous exercise for improving variables related to endurance and anaerobic performance in young and adolescent athletes.Objectives: To assess original research about enhancement of endurance and anaerobic exercise performance in young and adolescent athletes performing HIIT.Method: Relevant articles published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved from the electronic databases PubMed and SPORTDiscus in December 2017. Inclusion criteria were: (i) controlled trials (HIIT vs. alternative training protocol) with pre-post design; (ii) healthy young athletes (≤18 years); (iii) assessing variables related to endurance and exercise performance. Hedges' g effect size (ES), and associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated for comparison of any outcome between experimental (HIIT) and alternative training protocol.Results: Twenty four studies, involving 577 athletes (mean age: 15.5 ± 2.2 years), were included in this review. HIIT exerted no or small positive mean ES on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), running performance, repeated sprint ability, jumping performance and submaximal heart rate. Although the mean ES for changes in VO2peak with HIIT is small (mean g = 0.10±0.28), the average increase in VO2peak from pre to post HIIT-interventions were 7.2 ± 6.9% vs. 4.3 ± 6.9% with any other alternative intervention. HIIT largely and positively affected running speed and oxygen consumption at various lactate- or ventilatory-based thresholds, as well as for sprint running performance. Calculations showed negative mean ES for change-of-direction ability (large), and peak blood lactate concentrations (small). Mean duration per training session for HIIT was shorter than for control interventions (28 ± 15 min vs. 38 ± 24 min).Conclusion: The present findings suggest that young athletes performing HIIT may improve certain important variables related to aerobic, as well as anaerobic, performance. With HIIT, most variables related to endurance improved to a higher extent, compared to alternative training protocols. However, based on ES, HIIT did not show clear superiority to the alternative training protocols. Nevertheless, young athletes may benefit from HIIT as it requires less time per training session leaving more time for training sport specific skills.
    Keywords: Adolescents ; Physical Fitness ; Aerobic Training ; Peak Oxygen Uptake ; Training Intensity
    E-ISSN: 1664-042X
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  • 6
    Book
    Book
    Cham: Springer International Publishing
    Language: English
    Description: This book presents recent research addressing the effects of different types of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise. It is also the first book that summarizes the effects of compression clothing on all main motor abilities in the context of various sports, offering a...
    Keywords: Biomedicine ; Human Physiology ; Sport Science ; Physiotherapy ; Sports Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISBN: 9783319394794
    ISBN: 3319394797
    E-ISSN: 97833193
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  • 7
    In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2015, Vol.40(6), pp.623-631
    Description: This study characterized the impact of high-intensity interval training on the kinetics of blood lactate and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-one boys (11.4 ± 0.8 years) and 19 men (29.4 ± 5.0 years) performed a set of four 30-s sprints with 2-min of rest and a single 30-s sprint on 2 separate occasions (randomized order) with assessment of performance. Blood lactate was assayed after each sprint and during 30 min of recovery from both tests. The individual time-curves of blood lactate concentration were fitted to the biexponential function as follows: [LA] ( t ) = [ LA] ( 0 ) + A 1 ( 1 − e − γ 1 t ) + A 2 ( 1 − e − γ 2 t ) , where the velocity parameters γ 1 and γ 2 reflect the capacity to release lactate from the previously active muscle into the blood and to subsequently eliminate lactate from the organism, respectively. In both tests, peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in the boys (four 30-s sprints: 12.2 ± 3.6 mmol·L −1 ; single 30-s sprint: 8.7 ± 1.8 mmol·L −1 ) than men (four 30-s sprints: 16.1 ± 3.3 mmol·L −1 ; single 30-s sprint: 11.5 ± 2.1; p 〈 0.001). The boys exhibited faster γ 1 (1.4531 ± 0.65 min; p 〈 0.001) and γ 2 (0.059 ± 0.023 min; p = 0.01) in the single 30-s sprint and faster γ 2 (0.049 ± 0.016 min; p = 0.01) in the four 30-s sprints. The worsening of performance from the first to the last of the four 30-s sprints was less pronounced in boys (9.2% ± 13.9%) than men (19.2% ± 11.5%; p = 0.01). In the present study boys, when compared with men, exhibited lower Peak blood lactate concentration; less pronounced decline in performance during the sprints concomitantly with more rapid release and elimination during the single 30-s sprint; and faster elimination of lactate following the four 30-s sprints.
    Description: Cette étude décrit l’effet d’un entraînement par intervalle d’intensité élevée sur la cinétique du lactate sanguin et la performance chez des garçons et des hommes entraînés. Vingt-et-un garçons (11,4 ± 0,8 ans) et 19 hommes (29,4 ± 5,0 ans) effectuent une série de 4 sprints d’une durée de 30 s avec 2 min de repos et un seul sprint d’une durée de 30 s en deux occasions distinctes (ordre aléatoire) et on évalue la performance. On évalue la concentration sanguine de lactate après chaque sprint et au cours des 30 min de récupération à chaque test. Les courbes individuelles concentration-temps de lactate sanguin sont ajustées à une fonction biexponentielle comme suit : [LA] ( t ) = [ LA] ( 0 ) + A 1 ( 1 − e − γ 1 t ) + A 2 ( 1 − e − γ 2 t ) où les paramètres de la vélocité γ 1 et γ 2 reflètent respectivement la capacité des muscles précédemment actifs à libérer le lactate dans le sang et à l’éliminer de l’organisme par la suite. Dans les deux tests, la concentration sanguine de pointe de lactate est significativement plus faible chez les garçons (4 × 30-s sprint: 12,2 ± 3,6 mmol·L –1 ; 1 sprint de 30 s: 8,7 ± 1,8 mmol·L –1 ) comparativement aux hommes (4 sprints de 30 s: 16,1 ± 3,3 mmol·L –1 ; 1 sprint de 30 s: 11,5 ± 2,1 mmol·L –1 ; p 〈 0,001). Chez les garçons, on observe des valeurs plus élevées de γ 1 (1,4531 ± 0,65 min; p 〈 0,001) et de γ 2 (0,059 ± 0,023 min; p = 0,01) au sprint de 30 s et des valeurs plus élevées de γ 2 (0,049 ± 0,016 min; p = 0,01) aux 4 sprints de 30 s. La diminution de la performance du 1 er au 4 e sprint de 30 s est moins prononcée chez les garçons (9,2 ± 13,9 %) que chez les hommes (19,2 ± 11,5 %; p = 0,01). Comparativement aux hommes, les garçons présentent une plus faible concentration sanguine de pointe de lactate, une diminution moins importante de la performance au sprint concomitamment à une libération et une élimination plus rapide du lactate au cours du sprint isolé de 30 s et une élimination plus rapide de lactate à la suite des 4 sprints de 30 s. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
    Keywords: High Intensive Interval Training ; Children ; Elimination ; Recovery ; Entraînement Par Intervalle D’intensité Élevée ; Enfants ; Élimination ; Récupération
    ISSN: 1715-5312
    E-ISSN: 1715-5320
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Pediatric exercise science, November 2014, Vol.26(4), pp.485-94
    Description: This study aimed to determine the effects of a single high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses, and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5 ± 0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7 ± 4.6 years) performed HIIT (4 consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55 ± 3.3 nmol/l to 15.13 ± 9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07 ± 4.7 nmol/l to 19.19 ± 12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p 〈 .01). Pretest SC as well as posttest changes were comparable in both groups (both p 〈 .01). Peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in boys (12.6 ± 3.5 mmol/l) than in men (16.3 ± 3.1 mmol/l; p 〈 .01). Throughout the HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p 〈 .001) but relative peak oxygen uptake (ml·min-1·kg-1; p 〈 .05) and performance were lower (p 〈 .001) in boys than in men. HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic, and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.
    Keywords: Bicycling -- Physiology ; Physical Exertion -- Physiology
    ISSN: 08998493
    E-ISSN: 1543-2920
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  • 9
    Language: German
    In: German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 2018, Vol.48(1), pp.120-128
    Description: Hintergrund und Ziel: Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Analyse der Effekte einer 6-wöchigen Ausdauertrainingsintervention (hochintensives Intervalltraining [HIIT] vs. Grundlagenausdauer [GAT]) im Rahmen des Sportunterrichts auf motorische Leistung, subjektives Belastungsempfinden sowie psychische Stimmung von 11-jährigen Schüler/innen. Methoden: In 6 Wochen absolvierten 85 Schüler/innen (Alter: 11,9 ± 0,9 Jahre) 11 Trainingseinheiten HIIT (ca. 20 min, Intervalle von 10 s-4 min mit ca. 90-100 % der durchschnittlichen Laufgeschwindigkeit des 6-min-Laufes [vmittel]) oder GAT (30 min, Intervalle von 6-25 min mit ca. 65-85 % der vmittel). Vor und nach der Intervention wurden Körpergröße und -gewicht sowie die motorische Leistungsfähigkeit (20-m-Sprint, Standweitsprung, seitliches Hin- und Herspringen, Liegestütz, Sit-ups, 6-min-Lauf) ermittelt. Die individuell wahrgenommene Anstrengung während HIIT bzw. GAT wurde nach jedem Training mittels Session-RPE-Skala und die individuelle Stimmung mittels Befindlichkeitsfragebogen ermittelt. Ergebnisse: Die Laufdistanz im 6-min-Lauf (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,473), 20-m-Sprint Zeit (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,226), Standweitsprungweite (p ( 0,05; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,056), Anzahl der Liegestütze (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,523) und Sit-ups in 40 s (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,146) verbesserten sich nach HIIT und GAT ohne signifikante Interaktion Zeit x Gruppe (mit Ausnahme der Anzahl der Sit-ups in 40 s [p ( 0,05; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,048]). RPE (p ( 0,05) war höher und die Stimmung (p ( 0,05) positiver nach HIIT. Schlussfolgerungen: HIIT und GAT verbesserten die motorische Leistung gleichermaßen. Jedoch benötigte das HIIT im Vergleich zum GAT 30 % weniger Zeit. Da die Netto-Zeit im Sportunterricht limitiert ist, bietet HIIT eine neue Perspektive zur Verbesserung der Ausdauer und weiterer motorischer Leistungen von Schüler/innen. Die positive Stimmung nach HIIT unterstreicht die Anwendbarkeit von HIIT im Sportunterricht. (Autor). Background and aim: This study examined the effects of a 6-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. low-intensity endurance training (LOW), applied during physical education on motor performance, mood and perceived exertion. Methods: Over a period of 6 weeks, 85 pupils (34 male; 51 female; age: 11.9 ± 0.9 years) performed 11 sessions of either HIIT (20 min, intervals from 10 s to 4 min at about 90-100% of average running speed of 6 min run [vmean]) or LOW (30 min, intervals from 6-25 min at about 65-85% vmean). Before and after the 6-week intervention each pupils' anthropometry and motor performance (20 m sprint, standing long-jump, lateral jumping from side to side, push-ups, sit-ups, 6 min run) were assessed. Session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after each session and mood was assessed by questionnaire following the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 11th session. Results: RPE (p ( 0.05) was higher and mood more positive (p ( 0.05) with HIIT compared to LOW. Performances in the 6 min run (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.473), 20 m sprint (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.226), standing long-jump (p ( 0.05; part. eta squared = 0.056), push-ups (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.523) and sit-ups (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.146) improved following HIIT and LOW with no significant time x group interaction (except for the sit-ups [p ( 0.05; part. eta squared = 0.048]). Conclusions: HIIT and LOW improved the performances in 6 min run, 20 m sprint, standing long-jump and push-ups similarly. However, the improvements in HIIT compared to LOW were achieved in 30% less time. As time is limited in physical education classes, HIIT offers a new perspective for improving endurance and motor performance in children. The positive mood associated with HIIT demonstrates the applicability in physical education. (Autor).
    Keywords: Endurance training ; Children ; Anaerobic–lactic endurance training ; Physical education ; Continuous training
    ISSN: 2509-3142
    E-ISSN: 2509-3150
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Physiology, 01 May 2018, Vol.9
    Description: Objectives: To evaluate the immediate responses to forearm compression of blood lactate concentration, heart rate, perceived exertion and local forearm muscle pain during severe climbing in elite climbers.Method: Seven elite climbers (18 ± 2 years; 164 ± 5 cm; 57.8 ± 5.3 kg) performed 3 × 3 climbing bouts with maximal intensity on a distinct 8 m boulder wall (lead grade: 7a–8b) in a single blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, wearing either forearm sleeves with compression (verum-compression) or placebo forearm sleeves with no compression (falsum-compression). Each climber’s heart rate was recorded during and capillary blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and forearm muscle pain were assessed directly after climbing.Result: Heart rate (p = 0.45, ηp2 = 0.12), blood lactate concentrations (p = 0.44, ηp2 = 0.10), perceived exertion levels (p = 0.51, ηp2 = 0.08) and pain perception (p = 0.67, ηp2 = 0.03) were not affected by forearm compression. No condition × time interaction effect (compression × time) occurred for heart rate (p = 0.66, ηp2 = 0.04), blood lactate concentration (p = 0.70, ηp2 = 0.02), perceived exertion (p = 0.20, ηp2 = 0.26) and pain perception (p = 0.62, ηp2 = 0.04).Conclusion: In elite climbers performing severe climbing bouts, sleeves with forearm compression do not alter blood lactate concentration, heart rate, perceived exertion and local forearm muscle pain.
    Keywords: Acute Response ; Climbing ; Compression Garments ; Clothing ; External Pressure
    E-ISSN: 1664-042X
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