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  • Spielvogel, Sandra  (14)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2004, Vol.167(5), pp.545-555
    Description: Relationships between soil lightness, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, content of organic C, CaCO, and texture were studied using 42 top‐soil horizons from different soil types located in southern Germany. SOM composition was determined by CPMAS C NMR spectroscopy, soil color was measured by diffuse‐reflectance spectrophotometry and given in the CIE L*a*b* color coordination system (, 1978). Multiple‐regression analysis showed, that soil lightness of top‐soil horizons is principally determined by OC concentration, but CaCO and soil texture are also major variables. Soil lightness decreased with increasing OC content. Carbonate content had an important effect on soil lightness even at low concentrations due to its lightening property. Regressions between soil lightness and organic C content were strongly linear, when the soils were differentiated according to texture and CaCO content. The aryl‐C content was the only SOM component which correlated significantly with soil lightness (r = –0.87). In the linear regressions carried out on the different soil groups, soil aryl‐C content was a more significant predictor for soil lightness than total OC content. Zusammensetzung der organischen Bodensubstanz und Bodenhelligkeit Der Zusammenhang zwischen Bodenhelligkeit, Zusammensetzung der organischen Substanz und Gehalt an C, CaCO und Textur wurde in 42 Oberböden aus verschiedenen Bodentypen Süddeutschlands untersucht. Die Zusammensetzung der organischen Substanz wurde mittels CPMAS‐C‐NMR‐Spektroskopie bestimmt, die Bodenfarbe mittels Spektralphotometer und als Bodenhelligkeitswert im CIE L*a*b*‐Farbkoordinatensystem (, 1978) angegeben. Die Auswertung über multiple Regression zeigte, dass die Bodenhelligkeit hauptsächlich vom OC‐Gehalt bestimmt wird; CaCO‐Gehalt und Textur erwiesen sich als weitere relevante Variablen. Die Bodenhelligkeit nimmt mit zunehmendem OC‐Gehalt ab. Aufgrund seiner stark aufhellenden Wirkung hat der Carbonatgehalt auch bei niedrigen Konzentrationen einen deutlichen Einfluss auf die Bodenhelligkeit. Bei Berücksichtigung der Textur und des Carbonatgehalts ergaben sich lineare Beziehungen zwischen Bodenhelligkeit und OC‐Gehalt. Der Aryl‐C‐Gehalt des Bodens war als einzige Humuskomponente signifikant mit der Bodenhelligkeit korreliert (r = –0.87). Der Aryl‐C‐Gehalt des Bodens bestimmt die Bodenhelligkeit schärfer als der OC‐Gehalt.
    Keywords: Soil Color ; Aromatic Carbon ; Soil Organic Matter ; Solid‐State C Nmr Spectroscopy ; Caco
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2014, Vol.381(1), pp.95-110
    Description: Background and aims Differences in chemical composition of root compounds and root systems among tree species may affect organic matter (OM) distribution, source and composition in forest soils. The objective of this study was to elucidate the contribution of species specific cutin and suberin biomarkers as proxies for shoot- and root-derived organic carbon (OC) to soil OM at different depths with increasing distance to the stems of four different tree species. Methods The contribution of cutin- and suberin-derived lipids to OM in a Cutanic Alisol was analyzed with increasing soil depth and distance to the stems of Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies (L.) Karst., Quercus robur L. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Cutin and suberin monomers of plants and soils were analyzed by alkaline hydrolysis and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results The amount and distribution of suberin-derived lipids in soil clearly reflected the specific root system of the different tree species. The amount of cutin-derived lipids decreased strongly with soil depth, indicating that the input of leaf/needle material is restricted to the topsoil. In contrast to the suberin-derived lipids, the spatial pattern of cutin monomer contribution to soil OM did not depend on tree species. Conclusions Our results document the importance of tree species as a main factor controlling the composition and distribution of OM in forest soils. They reveal the impact of tree species on root-derived OM distribution and the necessity to distinguish among different zones when studying soil OM storage in forests. Keywords Biomarkers * Cutin * Suberin * Depth profile * Subsoil
    Keywords: Biomarkers ; Cutin ; Suberin ; Depth profile ; Subsoil
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 April 2016, Vol.267, pp.112-122
    Description: Our knowledge about the effect of single-tree influence areas on the physicochemical properties of the underlying mineral soil in forest ecosystems is still limited. This restricts our ability to adequately estimate future changes in soil functioning due to forest management practices. We studied the stand scale spatial variation of different soil organic matter species investigated by C NMR spectroscopy, lignin phenol and neutral sugar analysis under an unmanaged mountainous high-elevation Norway spruce ( .) forest in central Europe. Multivariate geostatistical approaches were applied to relate the spatial patterns of the different soil organic matter species to topographic parameters, bulk density, oxalate- and dithionite-extractable iron, pH, and the impact of tree distribution. Soil samples were taken from the mineral top soil. Generally, the stand scale distribution patterns of different soil organic matter compounds could be divided into two groups: Those compounds, which were significantly spatially correlated with topography/altitude and those with small scale spatial pattern (range ≤ 10 m) that was closely related to tree distribution. The concentration of plant-derived soil organic matter components, such as lignin, at a given sampling point was significantly spatially related to the distance of the nearest tree (p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, the spatial distribution of mainly microbial-derived compounds (e.g. galactose and mannose) could be attributed to the dominating impact of small-scale topography and the contribution of poorly crystalline iron oxides that were significantly larger in the central depression of the study site compared to crest and slope positions. Our results demonstrate that topographic parameters dominate the distribution of overall topsoil organic carbon (OC) stocks at temperate high-elevation forest ecosystems, particularly in sloped terrain. However, trees superimpose topography-controlled OC biogeochemistry beneath their crown by releasing litter and changing soil conditions in comparison to open areas. This may lead to distinct zones with different mechanisms of soil organic matter degradation and also stabilization in forest stands.
    Keywords: Tree–Soil Interactions ; Spatial Heterogeneity ; Zone of Tree Influence ; Soil Organic Matter Composition ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2013, Vol.176(4), pp.509-519
    Description: Dolomite (CaMg(CO)) constitutes half of the global carbonates. Thus, many calcareous soils have been developing rather from dolomitic rocks than from calcite (CaCO)‐dominated limestone. We developed a physical fractionation procedure based on three fractionation steps, using sonication with subsequent density fractionation to separate soil organic matter (SOM) from dolomite‐derived soil constituents. The method avoids acidic pretreatment for destruction of carbonates but aims at separating out carbonate minerals according to density. The fractionation was tested on three soils developed on dolostone parent material (alluvial gravel and solid rock), differing in organic‐C (OC) and inorganic‐C (IC) concentrations and degree of carbonate weathering. Soil samples were suspended and centrifuged in Na‐polytungstate (SPT) solutions of increasing density, resulting in five different fractions: two light fractions 20 μm and 2.6 g cm) was dominated by dolomite (85%–95%). The density separation yielded fractions differing in mineral compositions, as well as in SOM, indicated by soil‐type‐specific OC distributions and decreasing OC : N ratios with increasing density of fractions. The presented method is applicable to a wide range of dolomitic and most likely to all other calcareous soils.
    Keywords: Carbonates ; Sodium Polytungstate ; Carbon ; Iron Oxides ; Sonication
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Organic Geochemistry, 2010, Vol.41(6), pp.580-585
    Description: To understand plant–microbe relationships, a simple method is required for identification of the nature of soil polysaccharides. Acid hydrolysis, reduction of sugar monomers to the corresponding alcohols and subsequent derivatisation with acetic anhydride prior to gas chromatography has often been used for identification and quantification of hydrolysable sugars in plant and soil samples. In mineral soil samples, precipitation of iron hydroxides and dissolved organic substances after addition of ammonia may lead to co-precipitation of the analytes, leading to an underestimation of the neutral sugar content. The aim of this study was to adapt the derivatisation procedure for soil samples with large iron (hydr)oxide contents. This was done by omission of ammonia and addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to keep iron in solution and to avoid co-precipitation. Standard addition approaches show that the recovery of all sugars is enhanced with the modified method. Application of the EDTA method improves the recovery of added internal standard, increases yields of sugars in mineral soils and reduces the observed standard error compared to the ammonia method. This was shown for a set of various soil samples with different iron (hydr)oxide contents. The EDTA method is also applicable for mineral free samples and therefore suitable for routine use.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0146-6380
    E-ISSN: 1873-5290
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2007, Vol.39(2), pp.655-668
    Description: Long-term effects of forest disturbance 25 yr ago on lignin and non-cellulosic polysaccharide pools in an unmanaged high-elevation Norway spruce ( L. [Karst.]) forest were investigated by comparing three dieback sites with three adjacent control sites with non-infested spruce on identical soils. Samples were taken from the forest floor and the mineral soil; one Ah horizon sample per site was physically fractionated into density and particle size fractions. Additionally, changes in the above- and belowground input of lignin and non-cellulosic polysaccharides after forest dieback were quantified. Lignin and its degree of structural alteration in plant and soil samples were assessed by CuO oxidation and subsequent analysis of the lignin phenols. Non-cellulosic polysaccharides were determined after hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), derivatisation of their neutral sugar monomers by reduction to alditols, and subsequent acetylation. The total plant-derived input of lignin and non-cellulosic polysaccharides to the soil was similar for the dieback and the control sites. The chemical composition of the input has changed considerably after forest dieback, as shown by significantly higher syringyl/vanillyl (S/V) ratios and significantly lower (galactose+mannose)/(arabinose+xylose) (GM/AX) ratios. This indicates a changed plant input and a higher contribution of microbial sugars. Contents of lignin phenols in the forest floor and coarse particle size fractions of the A horizons were significantly smaller at the dieback sites ( 〈0.01). Moreover, larger acid-to-aldehyde ratios of vanillyl units (Ac/Al) indicated an increased degree of lignin phenol alteration. Also contents of neutral sugars were significantly ( 〈0.01) smaller in the forest floor, but not in the A horizons of the dieback sites. The GM/AX mass ratios as well as the (rhamnose+fucose)/(arabinose+xylose) (RF/AX) ratios in the forest floor and coarse particle size fractions of the mineral topsoil were significantly ( 〈0.01) larger after forest dieback, indicating a larger relative contribution of microbial sugars. In general, the lignin phenol and neutral sugar pools of all three soil types exhibited similar response patterns to the changed site conditions. Our results demonstrate that the lignin and neutral sugar pools of humic topsoil horizons are highly sensitive to forest disturbances. However, the two compounds show different patterns in the mineral soil, with the major neutral sugar pool being stabilized against changes whereas the lignin phenol pool decreases significantly.
    Keywords: Forest Soils ; Particle Size Fractions ; Alkaline Cuo-Oxidation ; Soil Carbohydrates ; Polysaccharides ; Canopy Loss ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 2009, Vol.152(3), pp.218-230
    Description: Few data are available on the relative importance of different site-specific factors (e.g. topographic parameters, vegetation, soil-specific factors) for soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution in northern forests. Moreover, an increasing frequency of large-scale forest dieback in these forests may change the SOC stock and its spatial distribution. Univariate and multivariate geostatistics were applied to elucidate the spatial variability of SOC stocks of different landscape units under a high-elevation Norway spruce ( L.) forest in central Europe and its relation to topographic parameters, soil-specific factors, and the impact of recent and past stand composition. We studied four high-elevation sites: Three are stocked with unmanaged Norway spruce ( L.) forest, but differ in their positions on hillslope, topographic parameters, and soil type. At an adjacent site the spruce forest had been destroyed by bark-beetle ( ) infestation 25 years ago (dieback site). The fallen logs remained at the site and the site was not reforested. Soil samples were taken from the forest floor and the mineral soil. Fine root biomass and SOC stocks were significantly negatively spatially correlated at the spruce sites, but spatially independent at the dieback site due to the homogeneous distribution of grass roots at this site. For none of the sites with healthy Norway spruce forest, forest floor thickness or the magnitude of the SOC stocks at a given sampling point was related to its distance to the nearest tree. This is attributed to an overwhelming impact of small-scale topography (≤ 5 m) on the SOC stock distribution. In contrast, at the dieback site the SOC stocks in the forest floor and the topsoil horizon showed a significant negative spatial correlation with the distance to the nearest fallen log. The spatial variability of the SOC stocks in the mineral soil increased with increasing stone content and curvature heterogeneity. Clay content and SOC stocks were spatially positively correlated at each site, demonstrating the importance of soil texture on SOC distribution. Our results indicate that topographic parameters dominate the distribution of topsoil and subsoil SOC stocks at stand scale at the investigated sites. In contrast, tree distribution is only of minor importance at these sites with a distinctive patchy topographic structure. Particularly in sloped terrain, fallen logs have the potential to change the spatial distribution of SOC stocks in the forest floor, but also in the mineral topsoil considerably, and within a period of a few decades.
    Keywords: Multivariate Geostatistics ; Topography ; Soil Mapping ; Tree Distribution ; Som Pool ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2006, Vol.70(6), p.2130
    Description: Long-term effects of forest dieback on soil organic matter (SOM) pools in an unmanaged high-elevation Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.] forest were investigated by comparing three dieback sites with three adjacent sites with healthy spruce. The aim was to assess the long-term biogeochemical impact of a major disturbance in unmanaged forest ecosystems due to potential modification of their soil organic carbon (OC) pool. The spruces at the dieback sites had been killed by a bark beetle (Ips typographus) infestation 25 yr ago. Total OC stocks in the topsoil of all sites were determined; different OC pools were quantified by density/particle-size fractionation and ¹³C cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS NMR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the aboveground and belowground plant-derived OC input was quantified and the OC species were analyzed. The forest floor at the dieback sites showed significantly lower OC stocks, storing 〈70% of the respective amount at the sites with healthy forest. In the forest floor and the light fraction of the Ah horizons at the dieback sites, the C/N ratio and the concentration of O-alkyl C in the OM were significantly lower, whereas the OM of the other fractions and of the bulk SOM in Ah horizons showed no changes. The observed SOM changes were caused primarily by an accelerated SOM turnover and only secondarily caused by changed litter input. Particularly the OC pool with a low degree of humification was reduced in its amount and increased in its decomposition status while the more stable C fractions showed no significant changes. ; Includes references ; p. 2130-2145.
    Keywords: Forest Soils ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Biodegradation ; Coniferous Forests ; Topsoil ; Ips Typographus ; Phytophagous Insects ; Soil Organic Matter ; Coarse Woody Debris ; Forest Litter ; Defoliation ; Dieback ; Carbon Nitrogen Ratio ; Canopy Gaps ; Picea Abies ; Chemical Composition ; Bark Beetles;
    ISSN: Soil Science Society of America Journal
    ISSN: 03615995
    E-ISSN: 1435-0661
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Keywords: Geography & Travel
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
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