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  • Stahl, Kerstin  (16)
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  • 1
    Keywords: Water Resources Research
    ISSN: 14391783
    Source: DataCite
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  • 2
    In: Geophysical Research Letters, 16 September 2014, Vol.41(17), pp.6174-6183
    Description: Streamflow drought response depends to a large degree on groundwater recharge. To better predict and preempt streamflow droughts, the relationship between recharge deficit and streamflow response needs to be studied more systematically. We present a combined soil‐vegetation‐atmosphere transfer and conceptual groundwater model experiment that applies a novel set of recharge scenarios preceding drought events in humid‐temperate catchments with different dominant aquifer types. The recharge scenarios are based on the permutation of historical time series and on modified time series matching extreme (50 year) drought events. Karstic and fractured aquifers show short‐term sensitivity to drought with an event‐specific relationship between recharge and streamflow response. Porous and complex aquifers show long‐term sensitivity and a more catchment‐controlled propagation of drought. The sensitivity of drought deficit and recovery time correlates with the water age distribution in baseflow, which is trackable in the groundwater model and a characteristic that should be exploited to improve streamflow drought prediction. Recharge scenarios drive groundwater models to exacerbate streamflow droughtsShort‐ and long‐term sensitivity to drought can be explained by aquifer typesWater age correlates with drought deficit and recovery time
    Keywords: Drought ; Groundwater/Surface Water Interaction ; Modeling ; Water Budgets ; Extreme Events ; Streamflow
    ISSN: 0094-8276
    E-ISSN: 1944-8007
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  • 3
    In: Hydrological Processes, 01 January 2018, Vol.32(1), pp.160-166
    Description: Quantifying the components of rain, snowmelt, and glacier ice melt in river discharge is an important but difficult task in hydrology. Although it forms the basis of many climate impact assessments, many published modelling results do not clearly describe how they derived the discharge components. Consequently, reported components such as absolute amounts or relative percentages of snow and ice melt from different studies are rarely comparable. This commentary revisits the differences in the terminology used, the modelling approaches, and the possible conclusions for effects at different time scales. We argue that for questions related to changes in discharge, not particle tracking, for which methodology is widely available, but instead, an “effect tracking” of the input contributions is important, that is, the representation of the signals of rainfall, snowmelt, and glacier ice melt in the discharge at the catchment outlet. We introduce and briefly describe a method for effect tracking and discuss the differences and advantages compared to other methods. This comparison supports our call to the modelling community for more precise descriptions of how the generated input contributions into a catchment from rainfall, snowmelt, and glacier ice melt are tracked through the catchments' multiple stores to finally compose the presented hydrographs.
    Keywords: Glaciers – Analysis ; Rivers – Analysis ; Hydrology – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
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  • 4
    In: Ecohydrology, November 2012, Vol.5(6), pp.721-732
    Description: Changes of the land surface affect the water balance components over seasonal, annual and decadal time scales. This study explored the role of vegetation cover transitions on evapotranspiration in forested watersheds of the North American West. We applied empirical time‐recovery functions describing the impact of forest removal and subsequent regrowth on actual evapotranspiration () or runoff. A generalized function () was adapted to the North American West and tested using three different datasets of observed or estimated in forest chronosequences: from flux towers equipped with eddy covariance sensors, estimated from the water balance in experimental paired watersheds and in a set of gauged watersheds with considerable forest cover history dating back to the 18th century. from the first two datasets showed a behaviour similar to the K‐curve, although the timing and the magnitude differed substantially. To reconstruct long‐term changes in for the gauged watersheds, we applied a transfer function approach linking the K‐curve and the reconstructed forest cover history at the watershed scale. In several watersheds, correlation coefficients between the reconstructed changes and the annual water balances suggest that changes in time were driven by the land cover transitions. In watersheds with low correlations, disturbance activities peaked before the 20th century, and the effects of vegetation have phased out in the period of streamflow observations. The findings of this paper suggest that trends in the observed water balance in forested watersheds can be associated to land cover disturbances well before the start of hydro‐climatic observations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Forest Disturbance ; Recovery ; Evapotranspiration ; Stand Age ; North American West ; Water Balance ; Forest Cover History ; Eddy Covariance Fluxes
    ISSN: 1936-0584
    E-ISSN: 1936-0592
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 03/30/2017, pp.1-20
    Description: Glaciers play an important role in high-mountain hydrology. While changing glacier areas are considered of highest importance for the understanding of future changes in runoff, glaciers are often only poorly represented in hydrological models. Most importantly, the direct coupling between the simulated glacier mass balances and changing glacier areas needs feasible solutions. The use of a complex glacier model is often not possible due to data and computational limitations. The Δ〈i〉h〈/i〉-parameterization is a simple approach to consider the spatial variation of glacier thickness and area changes. Here, we describe a conceptual implementation of the Δ〈i〉h〈/i〉-parameterization into the semi-distributed hydrological model HBV-light, which also allows for the representation of glacier advance phases, and comparison between the different versions of the implementation. The coupled glacio-hydrological simulation approach, which could also be implemented in many other semi-distributed hydrological models, is illustrated based on an example application.
    Keywords: Geography;
    ISSN: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
    ISSN: 16077938
    E-ISSN: 1812-2116
    E-ISSN: 16077938
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, April 9, 2018, Vol.22(4), p.2211
    Description: Glaciers play an important role in high-mountain hydrology. While changing glacier areas are considered of highest importance for the understanding of future changes in runoff, glaciers are often only poorly represented in hydrological models. Most importantly, the direct coupling between the simulated glacier mass balances and changing glacier areas needs feasible solutions. The use of a complex glacier model is often not possible due to data and computational limitations. The #xCE;#x94;h parameterization is a simple approach to consider the spatial variation of glacier thickness and area changes. Here, we describe a conceptual implementation of the #xCE;#x94;h parameterization in the semi-distributed hydrological model HBV-light, which also allows for the representation of glacier advance phases and for comparison between the different versions of the implementation. The coupled glacio-hydrological simulation approach, which could also be implemented in many other semi-distributed hydrological models, is illustrated based on an example application.
    Keywords: Glaciers – Models ; Glaciers – Environmental Aspects ; Hydrology – Models ; Climate Models – Usage
    ISSN: 1027-5606
    E-ISSN: 16077938
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  • 7
    In: Hydrological Processes, 30 May 2017, Vol.31(11), pp.2000-2015
    Description: One of the most important functions of catchments is the storage of water. Catchment storage buffers meteorological extremes and interannual streamflow variability, controls the partitioning between evaporation and runoff, and influences transit times of water. Hydrogeological data to estimate storage are usually scarce and seldom available for a larger set of catchments. This study focused on storage in prealpine and alpine catchments, using a set of 21 Swiss catchments comprising different elevation ranges. Catchment storage comparisons depend on storage definitions. This study defines different types of storage including definitions of dynamic and mobile catchment storage. We then estimated dynamic storage using four methods, water balance analysis, streamflow recession analysis, calibration of a bucket‐type hydrological model Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning model (HBV), and calibration of a transfer function hydrograph separation model using stable isotope observations. The HBV model allowed quantifying the contributions of snow, soil and groundwater storages compared to the dynamic catchment storage. With the transfer function hydrograph separation model both dynamic and mobile storage was estimated. Dynamic storage of one catchment estimated by the four methods differed up to one order of magnitude. Nevertheless, the storage estimates ranked similarly among the 21 catchments. The largest dynamic and mobile storage estimates were found in high‐elevation catchments. Besides snow, groundwater contributed considerably to this larger storage. Generally, we found that with increasing elevation the relative contribution to the dynamic catchment storage increased for snow, decreased for soil, but remained similar for groundwater storage.
    Keywords: Elevation Gradient ; Hbv ; Storage Estimation ; Swiss Alps ; Tracer Hydrology ; Transep ; Water Availability
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
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  • 8
    In: Hydrological Processes, 15 March 2015, Vol.29(6), pp.1301-1313
    Description: Previous work has shown that streamflow response during baseflow conditions is a function of storage, but also that this functional relationship varies among seasons and catchments. Traditionally, hydrological models incorporate conceptual groundwater models consisting of linear or non‐linear storage–outflow functions. Identification of the right model structure and model parameterization however is challenging. The aim of this paper is to systematically test different model structures in a set of catchments where different aquifer types govern baseflow generation processes. Nine different two‐parameter conceptual groundwater models are applied with multi‐objective calibration to transform two different groundwater recharge series derived from a soil‐atmosphere‐vegetation transfer model into baseflow separated from streamflow data. The relative performance differences of the model structures allow to systematically improve the understanding of baseflow generation processes and to identify most appropriate model structures for different aquifer types. We found more versatile and more aquifer‐specific optimal model structures and elucidate the role of interflow, flow paths, recharge regimes and partially contributing storages. Aquifer‐specific recommendations of storage models were found for fractured and karstic aquifers, whereas large storage capacities blur the identification of superior model structures for complex and porous aquifers. A model performance matrix is presented, which highlights the joint effects of different recharge inputs, calibration criteria, model structures and aquifer types. The matrix is a guidance to improve groundwater model structures towards their representation of the dominant baseflow generation processes of specific aquifer types. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Conceptual Model ; Storage–Discharge ; Aquifer Type ; Baseflow ; Model Structure
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Description: In January 2011 a rain-on-snow (RoS) event caused floods in the major river basins in central Europe, i.e. the Rhine, Danube, Weser, Elbe, Oder, and Ems. This event prompted the questions of how to define a RoS event and whether those events have become more frequent. Based on the flood of January 2011 and on other known events of the past, threshold values for potentially flood-generating RoS events were determined. Consequently events with rainfall of at least 3 mm on a snowpack of at least 10 mm snow water equivalent (SWE) and for which the sum of rainfall and snowmelt contains a minimum of 20% snowmelt were analysed. RoS events were estimated for the time period 1950–2011 and for the entire study area based on a temperature index snow model driven with a European-scale gridded data set of daily climate (E-OBS data). Frequencies and magnitudes of the modelled events differ depending on the elevation range. When distinguishing alpine, upland, and lowland basins, we found that upland basins are most influenced by RoS events. Overall, the frequency of rainfall increased during winter, while the frequency of snowfall decreased during spring. A decrease in the frequency of RoS events from April to May has been observed in all upland basins since 1990. In contrast, the results suggest an increasing trend in the magnitude and frequency of RoS days in January and February for most of the lowland and upland basins. These results suggest that the flood hazard from RoS events in the early winter season has increased in the medium-elevation mountain ranges of central Europe, especially in the Rhine, Weser, and Elbe river basins.
    Keywords: Institute of Geography ; 910 Geography & travel
    Source: University of Zurich
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 05/28/2019, pp.1-30
    ISSN: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
    E-ISSN: 1812-2116
    Source: CrossRef
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