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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Jan 15, 2014, Vol.468-469, p.642(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.047 Byline: Yan Zhang, Hongmei Zheng, Brian D. Fath, Hong Liu, Zhifeng Yang, Gengyuan Liu, Meirong Su Abstract: If cities are considered as "superorganisms", then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an "urban disease". It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input-output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input-output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input-output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban "diseases". Article History: Received 16 May 2013; Revised 8 August 2013; Accepted 17 August 2013 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: Simon James Pollard
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, August 2013, Vol.59, pp.600-613
    Description: The evaluation of ecosystem health in urban clusters will help establish effective management that promotes sustainable regional development. To standardize the application of emergy synthesis and set pair analysis (EM–SPA) in ecosystem health assessment, a procedure for using EM–SPA models was established in this paper by combining the ability of emergy synthesis to reflect health status from a biophysical perspective with the ability of set pair analysis to describe extensive relationships among different variables. Based on the EM–SPA model, the relative health levels of selected urban clusters and their related ecosystem health patterns were characterized. The health states of three typical Chinese urban clusters – Jing-Jin-Tang, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta – were investigated using the model. The results showed that the health status of the Pearl River Delta was relatively good; the health for the Yangtze River Delta was poor. As for the specific health characteristics, the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban clusters were relatively strong in Vigor, Resilience, and Urban ecosystem service function maintenance, while the Jing-Jin-Tang was relatively strong in organizational structure and environmental impact. Guidelines for managing these different urban clusters were put forward based on the analysis of the results of this study.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Health Pattern ; Chinese Urban Cluster ; Emergy ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2010, Vol.408(12), pp.2425-2434
    Description: Due to the important role of cities for regional, national, and international economic development and the concurrent degradation of the urban environmental quality under rapid urbanization, a systematic diagnosis of urban ecosystem health for sustainable ecological management is urgently needed. This paper reviews the related research on urban ecosystem health assessment, beginning from the inception of urban ecosystem health concerns propelled by the development needs of urban ecosystems and the advances in ecosystem health research. Concepts, standards, indicators, models, and case studies are introduced and discussed. Urban ecosystem health considers the integration of ecological, economic, social and human health factors, and as such it is a value-driven concept which is strongly influenced by human perceptions. There is not an absolute urban ecosystem standard because of the uncertainty caused by the changing human needs, targets, and expectation of urban ecosystem over time; thus, suitable approaches are still needed to establish health standards of urban ecosystems. Several conceptual models and suitable indicator frameworks have been proposed to organize the multiple factors to represent comprehensively the health characteristics of an urban ecosystem, while certain mathematical methods have been applied to deal with the indicator information to get a clear assessment of the urban ecosystem health status. Instead of perceiving the urban ecosystem assessment as an instantaneous measurement of the health state, it is suggested to conceptualize the urban ecosystem health as a process, which impels us to focus more studies on the dynamic trends of health status and projecting possible development scenarios.
    Keywords: Urban Ecosystem Health ; Health Assessment ; Ecosystem Indicators ; Ecosystem Model ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 January 2014, Vol.468-469, pp.642-653
    Description: If cities are considered as “superorganisms”, then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an “urban disease”. It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input–output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input–output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input–output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input–output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban “diseases”.
    Keywords: Beijing ; Ecological Network ; Physical Input–Output Table ; Urban Ecology ; Urban Metabolism ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Indicators, 2012, Vol.15(1), pp.122-130
    Description: ► Urban ecosystem health assessment is conducted on a land use subsystem scale. ► The spatial distribution of urban ecosystem health on a land use map is obtained. ► Policy suggestions are provided according to the health's spatial distribution. ► Five necessary factors for a healthy ecosystem are summarized. ► The indicators’ impact on the final health is ranked into five levels. Methods and indicators are needed to assess the urban ecosystem health status, amongst which energy and material metabolism should be integrated to enhance understanding of ecological patterns and processes of urban ecosystems. Therefore, emergy synthesis combining energetics with systems ecology is applied to assess systematically the health status of urban ecosystems. Combining ecosystem health levels with spatial geographical information of different land use subsystems, the spatial distribution of urban ecosystem health is obtained, which is helpful for urban ecological regulation and spatial optimization. Taking the situation of Guangzhou, China in 2005 as a case study, the relative health states based on emergy indicators and set pair analysis is evaluated. Results show that the health levels of the cultivated land, as well as areas with middle and low density buildings are relatively positive, while that of high density building and traffic areas are relatively weak. Through analysis of different land use subsystems, required factors of a healthy ecosystem are summarized, including moderate economic productivity but without much exploitation and disturbance, reasonable structure of energy and resources usage, medium resilience under pressure, moderate ecosystem service provisioning, and small environmental impact on surroundings. The spatial distribution of urban ecosystem health states is also obtained, such that the northern part of Guangzhou is defined as the conservation area, the middle and southern parts are defined as the maintenance area, while the south central and south western parts are defined as the key regulation area where a suitable scheme should be implemented to control the population density and resolve the concomitant problems. Moreover, the impact power of different indicators on the final health status is classified into five levels when combining the indicator weights with the main assessment factors of urban ecosystem health, which is useful for defining the regulation priority amongst a few indicators.
    Keywords: Urban Ecosystem Health ; Emergy-Based Ecological Indicators ; Spatial Distribution ; Emergy ; Land Use ; Guangzhou, China ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1470-160X
    E-ISSN: 1872-7034
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Cleaner Production, 20 January 2016, Vol.112, pp.4304-4317
    Description: In this paper, we develop a spatially explicit model of carbon transfers between regions of an urban area. The carbon transfers represent the metabolic processes due to regional land use changes. We used the model to identify spatial heterogeneity in the carbon metabolic structure, functions, and relationships within the network. Data for Beijing from 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, were combined with empirical coefficients, to construct the network. We used ecological network analysis to analyze the structure and function of the network, and to determine the ecological relationships between the components of the system, their distribution, and their changes over time. The analysis revealed that carbon throughflow of the network decreased and positive relations mostly outweighed negative relations. Exploitation relationships were the dominant type in Beijing during most of the study period, particularly in the northwest before 2000, but moved towards the southeast over time, leaving competition relationships with losses of benefits dominant in the northwest. Mutualism relationships with mainly beneficial carbon flows were dominant in the southeast, increasing in frequency in this region throughout the study period. The results provide a theoretical basis for planning adjustments to the city's structure to achieve low-carbon goals.
    Keywords: Urban Metabolism ; Carbon Emission ; Carbon Sequestration ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Spatial Analysis ; Ecological Relationships ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0959-6526
    E-ISSN: 1879-1786
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Applied Energy, 01 March 2016, Vol.165, pp.858-867
    Description: As a relatively clean energy, natural gas will be increasingly in demand to meet short-term low-carbon targets. The gap between the demand and supply of natural gas will be increasingly scrutinized, which highlights the significance of natural gas supply security. Considering the extensive connections among various aspects related to natural gas supply and the complex interactions behind these connections, ecological network analysis was applied to simulate the natural gas supply system in China and systematically measure its overall security level. Network Information Analysis, Structural Analysis, and Utility Analysis were conducted. It is found that the Chinese natural gas supply security increased during 2000–2011. In terms of the influence of different compartments on the whole natural gas supply system, in order from the largest to smallest influence they are: supply sources, consumption sector, refining, and reserve sectors. And the relationships among compartments became stronger in the later stage than that in the earlier stage of the study period. Suggestions on improving China’s natural gas supply security were proposed based on the results and further scenario analysis. The network model developed herein is a new perspective for natural gas supply security assessment, which can be used as guidance for policy making.
    Keywords: Energy Security ; Natural Gas Supply ; Ecological Network Analysis ; China ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0306-2619
    E-ISSN: 1872-9118
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  • 8
    In: Earth's Future, February 2019, Vol.7(2), pp.197-209
    Description: Cities are increasingly linked to domestic and foreign markets during rapid globalization of trade. While transboundary carbon footprints of cities have been recently highlighted, we still have limited understanding of how carbon emission linkages between sectors are reshaping urban carbon footprints through time. In this study, we propose an integrated input‐output approach to trace the dynamics of various types of carbon emission linkages associated with a city. This approach quantifies full linkages in the urban carbon system from both production‐ and consumption‐based perspectives. We assess the dynamic roles that economic sectors and activities play in manipulating multiscale linkages induced by local, domestic, and international inputs. Using Beijing as a case study, we find that imports from domestic and foreign markets have an increasing impact on the city's carbon footprint with more distant linkages during the period from 1990 to 2012. The manufacturing‐related carbon emission linkages have been increasingly transferred outside the urban boundary since 2005, while the linkages from the energy sector to services sectors remain important in Beijing's local economy. Applying systems thinking to input‐output linkage analysis provides important details on when and how carbon emission linkages evolved in cities, whereby sector‐oriented and activity‐oriented carbon mitigation policies can be formulated. Cities are increasingly linked to domestic and foreign markets during rapid globalization of trade. In this study, we propose an integrated approach to answer the question: what drives the carbon emissions from urban activities? We assess the dynamic roles that economic sectors and activities play in manipulating carbon flows related to local, domestic, and international inputs. Using Beijing as a case study, we find that imports from domestic and foreign markets have an increasing impact on the city's carbon flows from 1990 to 2012. The manufacture‐related carbon emission has been increasingly transferred outside the urban boundary since 2005, and the connection of energy sector with services sectors remains important in Beijing's local economy. This study provides important details on when and how carbon emission alters in cities, whereby informed carbon mitigation policies can be formulated. New indices are proposed to quantify the dynamic carbon emission linkages for a city Manufacturing‐related carbon emission linkages have been increasingly transferred outside the city of Beijing since 2005 Carbon emission linkages from the energy sector to services sectors remain important in Beijing's local economy during urbanization
    Keywords: Carbon Emission Linkages ; Input‐Output Analysis ; Dynamic Linkage Analysis ; Urban Decarbonization
    ISSN: 2328-4277
    E-ISSN: 2328-4277
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