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  • Taylor, Michael  (85)
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  • 1
    In: Neuro-Oncology, 2015, Vol. 17(suppl3), pp.iii28-iii28
    Description: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling is active in 30% of childhood medulloblastomas. Dysregulation of p53 signaling is especially prognostic for poor survival in SHH medulloblastoma. But, p53 is mutated in 〈10% of medulloblastomas. Genomic analyses have demonstrated high-level amplification of PPM1D (WIP1) in p53 wild-type SHH medulloblastomas. WIP1 functions as an oncogene, in part by inactivating p53. We hypothesized that, in the absence of p53 mutation, WIP1 overexpression augments SHH-driven medulloblastoma tumorigenesis and is an important target in the treatment of SHH-active medulloblastomas. WIP1 overexpression in murine granule neuron precursor (GNP) cells enhanced expression of Shh target genes, increased the percentage of cells in S phase, and increased cell viability in response to Shh stimulation. Although WIP1 is known to primarily act through p53 pathways, we found that the interaction between WIP1 and Shh was partially p53-independent. To further understand WIP1 mechanisms in vivo, we developed a mouse in which WIP1 is expressed in the developing brain under control of the Neurod2 promoter (ND2:WIP1). The external granule layer in early post-natal ND2:WIP1 mice exhibited increased proliferation and expression of Shh downstream targets. When ND2:WIP1 transgenic mice were crossed with SmoA1/SmoA1 medulloblastoma-prone mice, medulloblastoma incidence increased and double transgenic SmoA1/SmoA1; ND2:WIP1+ mice demonstrated reduced survival. Conversely, Wip1 knock out significantly suppressed medulloblastoma formation in SmoA1/SmoA1 as well as Tamoxifen-treated Math1-creER; Ptc1 fl/fl mice. Treatment with a lentivirus that knocks down Wip1 or with the WIP1 inhibitor CCT007093 inhibits the effects of Shh stimulation and potentiates the effects of the SHH pathway-inhibiting drugs SANT-1, cyclopamine, or the clinically-relevant LDE225 on the growth of either SmoA1/SmoA1 or Math1-creER + ; Ptc1 fl/fl medulloblastoma cells in vitro. This suggests an important cross-talk between SHH and WIP1 that accelerates tumorigenesis. Our findings also suggest an important role for WIP1 inhibition in the treatment of SHH-active medulloblastomas.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
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  • 2
    In: Nature Medicine, 2014, Vol.20(12), p.1378
    Description: Despite advances in chemotherapy and radiation over the past 40 years, the outcome for children with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) remains almost uniformly fatal, with survival of less than 12 months despite numerous trials of chemotherapy, targeted agents and radiation therapy. Recently, large genome-sequencing studies of pediatric high-grade gliomas have been carried out and have consistently identified a lysine to methionine (K27M) substitution in histones H3.1 and H3.3 in over 80% of midline high-grade gliomas and DIPGs2.
    Keywords: Tumors ; Chemotherapy ; Radiation Therapy ; Medical Research ; Epigenetics;
    ISSN: 1078-8956
    E-ISSN: 1546170X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 12/01/2015, Vol.75(23 Supplement), pp.A34-A34
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    In: Nature, 2014
    Description: Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for most paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family proto-oncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1 or GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate 'enhancer hijacking' as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer.
    Keywords: Medulloblastoma – Research ; Medulloblastoma – Health Aspects ; DNA Sequencing – Analysis ; Growth Factor Receptors – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 08/01/2015, Vol.75(15 Supplement), pp.3551-3551
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery, 2014, Vol.30(6), pp.979-990
    Description: To describe how the quality of life (QOL) discussion in childhood medulloblastoma (MB) relates to treatment developments, survival and sequelae from 1920 to 2014. Articles containing "childhood medulloblastoma" and "quality of life" were identified in PubMed. Those containing phrases pertaining to psychological,...
    Keywords: Cancer Och Onkologi ; Cancer And Oncology ; Pediatrik ; Pediatrics ; Medulloblastoma; Surgery; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Molecular Biology; Anesthesiology; Quality Of Life; Review
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    ISSN: 02567040
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: He, X., L. Zhang, Y. Chen, M. Remke, D. Shih, F. Lu, H. Wang, et al. 2014. “The G-protein Alpha Subunit Gsα Is A Tumor Suppressor In Sonic Hedgehog-driven Medulloblastoma.” Nature medicine 20 (9): 1035-1042. doi:10.1038/nm.3666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3666.
    Description: Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant childhood brain tumor, exhibits distinct molecular subtypes and cellular origins. Genetic alterations driving medulloblastoma initiation and progression remain poorly understood. Herein, we identify GNAS, encoding the G-protein Gsα, as a potent tumor suppressor gene that defines a subset of aggressive Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-driven human medulloblastomas. Ablation of the single Gnas gene in anatomically-distinct progenitors is sufficient to induce Shh-associated medulloblastomas, which recapitulate their human counterparts. Gsα is highly enriched at the primary cilium of granule neuron precursors and suppresses Shh-signaling by regulating both the cAMP-dependent pathway and ciliary trafficking of Hedgehog pathway components. Elevation of a Gsα effector, cAMP, effectively inhibits tumor cell proliferation and progression in Gnas mutants. Thus, our gain- and loss-of-function studies identify a previously unrecognized tumor suppressor function for Gsα that acts as a molecular link across Shh-group medulloblastomas of disparate cellular and anatomical origins, illuminating G-protein modulation as a potential therapeutic avenue.
    Keywords: Medulloblastoma ; G-Protein ; Camp ; Gpcr ; Cell Lineage ; Sonic Hedgehog Signaling ; Cilia ; Cellular Origins
    ISSN: 1078-8956
    E-ISSN: 1546170X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Nature neuroscience, September 2015, Vol.18(9), pp.1236-46
    Description: Over 20% of the drugs for treating human diseases target ion channels, but no cancer drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is intended to target an ion channel. We found that the EAG2 (Ether-a-go-go 2) potassium channel has an evolutionarily conserved function for promoting brain tumor growth and metastasis, delineate downstream pathways, and uncover a mechanism for different potassium channels to functionally cooperate and regulate mitotic cell volume and tumor progression. EAG2 potassium channel was enriched at the trailing edge of migrating medulloblastoma (MB) cells to regulate local cell volume dynamics, thereby facilitating cell motility. We identified the FDA-approved antipsychotic drug thioridazine as an EAG2 channel blocker that reduces xenografted MB growth and metastasis, and present a case report of repurposing thioridazine for treating a human patient. Our findings illustrate the potential of targeting ion channels in cancer treatment.
    Keywords: Evolution, Molecular ; Brain Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Drug Delivery Systems -- Methods ; Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Thioridazine -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 10976256
    E-ISSN: 1546-1726
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  • 10
    In: Nature Genetics, 2013, Vol.46(1), p.39
    Description: Embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) are rare, deadly pediatric brain tumors characterized by high-level amplification of the microRNA cluster C19MC(1,2). We performed integrated genetic and epigenetic analyses of 12 ETMR samples and identified, in all cases, C19MC fusions to TTYH1 driving expression of the microRNAs. ETMR tumors, cell lines and xenografts showed a specific DNA methylation pattern distinct from those of other tumors and normal tissues. We detected extreme overexpression of a previously uncharacterized isoform of DNMT3B originating at an alternative promoter (3) that is active only in the first weeks of neural tube development. Transcriptional and immunohistochemical analyses suggest that C19MC-dependent DNMT3B deregulation is mediated by RBL2, a known repressor of DNMT3B (4,5). Transfection with individual C19MC microRNAs resulted in DNMT3B upregulation and RBL2 downregulation in cultured cells. Our data suggest a potential oncogenic re-engagement of an early developmental program in ETMR via epigenetic alteration mediated by an embryonic, brain-specific DNMT3B isoform.
    Keywords: Microrna -- Physiological Aspects ; Microrna -- Genetic Aspects ; Microrna -- Research ; Brain Tumors -- Risk Factors ; Brain Tumors -- Genetic Aspects ; Brain Tumors -- Research ; Gene Expression -- Physiological Aspects ; Gene Expression -- Research ; Methyltransferases -- Physiological Aspects ; Methyltransferases -- Genetic Aspects ; Methyltransferases -- Research;
    ISSN: 1061-4036
    E-ISSN: 15461718
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