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  • Article  (5)
  • Vogel, Arndt  (5)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Critical Reviews in Oncology / Hematology, October 2018, Vol.130, pp.13-26
    Description: The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors constitutes an emerging therapeutic field for the therapy of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies following the recent FDA approvals of PD-1 inhibitors for esophago-gastric adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and for microsatellite-instable tumors, which are mainly colorectal cancers. This paper reviews the clinical evidence end of 2017 and discusses the clinical development programs of atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab in GI-tract cancers. Since 2014, these antagonists of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have gained approval for use in numerous other tumors. Phase II trials and phase I expansion cohorts demonstrate clinical activity in patients with oesophageal, gastric, colorectal, anal and hepatic cancer. Signals of outstanding efficacy are particularly observed in biomarker selected populations and for certain combination regimen. Comprehensive phase III development programs have been initiated in oesophageal and gastric cancer, with randomized trials ongoing in hepatocellular and colorectal cancer as well.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1040-8428
    E-ISSN: 1879-0461
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(11), p.e80454
    Description: BACKGROUND: Myostatin is a muscle derived factor that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Induction of myostatin expression was observed in rodent models of muscle wasting and in cachectic patients with cancer or pulmonary...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, June 2016, Vol.14(6), pp.875-886.e6
    Description: GALAD and BALAD-2 are statistical models for estimating the likelihood of the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in individual patients with chronic liver disease and the survival of patients with HCC, respectively. Both models use objective measures, particularly the serum markers α-fetoprotein (AFP), AFP-L3, and des-γ-carboxyprothrombin. We aimed to validate these models in an international cohort of patients with HCC and assess their clinical performance. We collected data on cancer diagnosis and outcomes of 6834 patients (2430 with HCC and 4404 with chronic liver disease) recruited from Germany, Japan, and Hong Kong. We also collected data from 229 patients with other hepatobiliary tract cancers (cholangiocarcinoma or pancreatic adenocarcinoma) and 92 healthy individuals (controls). For reference, the original UK cohort (on which the GALAD model initially was built and BALAD-2 was validated) was included in the analysis. We assessed the effects of tumor size and etiology on GALAD model performance, and its ability to correctly discriminate HCC from other hepatobiliary cancers. We assessed the performance of BALAD-2 in patients with different stages of HCC. In all cohorts, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), quantifying the ability of GALAD to discriminate patients with HCC from patients with chronic liver disease, was greater than 0.90—similar to the series on which the model originally was built (AUROC, 0.97). GALAD discriminated patients with HCC from those with other hepatobiliary cancers with an AUROC value of 0.95; values were slightly lower for patients with small unifocal HCCs, ranging from 0.85 to 0.95. Etiology and treatment of chronic viral hepatitis had no effect on the performance of this model. BALAD-2 analysis assigned patients with HCC to 4 distinct prognostic groups—overall and when patients were stratified according to disease stage. We validated the performance of the GALAD and BALAD-2 models for the diagnosis of HCC and predicting patient survival, respectively (based on levels of the serum markers AFP, AFP-L3, and des-γ-carboxyprothrombin), in an international cohort of almost 7000 patients. These systems might be used in HCC surveillance and determination of patient prognosis.
    Keywords: Liver Cancer ; Prognostic Marker ; Diagnostic ; Quantification ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1542-3565
    E-ISSN: 1542-7714
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  • 4
    In: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, May 2019, Vol.49(10), pp.1323-1333
    Description: Byline: Bernhard Scheiner, Martha M. Kirstein, Florian Hucke,Fabian Finkelmeier, Kornelius Schulze,Johann von Felden, Sandra Koch, Philipp Schwabl, Jan B. Hinrichs, Fredrik Waneck, Oliver Waidmann,Thomas Reiberger, Christian Muller, Wolfgang Sieghart, Michael Trauner, Arndt Weinmann, Henning Wege, Jorg Trojan, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Arndt Vogel,Matthias Pinter Summary Background Programmed cell death protein-1-targeted immunotherapy has shown promising results in phase II studies of hepatocellular carcinoma. Aim To evaluate safety and efficacy of nivolumab and pembrolizumab in an international, multicentre, real-world cohort of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Sixty-five patients treated with nivolumab (n = 34) or pembrolizumab (n = 31) between July 10, 2015 and December 31, 2018 (data cut-off) across six centres in Austria and Germany were retrospectively analysed. Results Child-Pugh class A/B/C was 32 (49%)/28 (43%)/5 (8%). Immunotherapy was used as systemic first-/second-/third-/fourth-line treatment in 9 (14%)/27 (42%)/26 (40%)/3 (5%) patients. Fifty-four patients had at least one follow-up imaging and were, therefore, available for radiological response assessment. The overall response and disease control rates were 12% and 49% respectively. Of 52 evaluable patients, four (8%) had hyperprogressive disease. Median time to progression was 5.5 (95% CI, 3.5-7.4) months, median progression-free survival was 4.6 (95% CI, 3.0-6.2) months, and median overall survival was 11.0 (95% CI, 8.2-13.8) months. Most common adverse events were infections (n = 7), rash (n = 6), pruritus (n = 3), fatigue (n = 3), diarrhoea (n = 3) and hepatitis (n = 3). Efficacy and safety results were comparable between Child-Pugh A and B patients; however, median overall survival (OS) was shorter in Child-Pugh B patients (16.7 vs 8.6 months; P = 0.065). There was no difference in terms of efficacy and adverse events between patients who received immunotherapy as first-/second-line and third-/fourth-line respectively. Conclusions Programmed cell death protein-1-targeted immunotherapy with nivolumab or pembrolizumab showed promising efficacy and safety in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, including subjects with Child-Pugh stage B and patients with intensive pretreatment. Article Note: Bernhard Scheiner and Martha M. Kirstein contributed equally. The authors' complete affiliations are listed in Appendix 1. The Handling Editor for this article was Dr Colin Howden, and it was accepted for publication after full peer-review. Audio Podcast CAPTION(S):
    Keywords: Nivolumab – Health Aspects ; Biochemistry – Health Aspects ; Pembrolizumab – Health Aspects ; Immunotherapy – Health Aspects ; Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Development and Progression ; Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Drug Therapy ; Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Health Aspects ; Apoptosis – Health Aspects;
    ISSN: 0269-2813
    E-ISSN: 1365-2036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet Oncology, July 2018, Vol.19(7), pp.940-952
    Description: Immune checkpoint blockade therapy has shown promising results in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in this patient population. KEYNOTE-224 is a non-randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial that is set in 47 medical centres and hospitals across ten countries. Eligible patients had pathologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma; had previously been treated with sorafenib and were either intolerant to this treatment or showed radiographic progression of their disease after treatment; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–1; adequate organ function, and were Child-Pugh class A. Participants received 200 mg pembrolizumab intravenously every 3 weeks for about 2 years or until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient withdrawal, or investigator decision. The primary endpoint was objective response, defined as the proportion of patients with complete or partial response in all patients who received at least one dose of pembrolizumab, which was radiologically confirmed by use of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 by central review. Safety was also assessed in all treated patients. This trial is ongoing but closed to enrolment and is registered with number . Between June 7, 2016, and Feb 9, 2017, we screened 169 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, of whom 104 eligible patients were enrolled and treated. As of data cutoff on Feb 13, 2018, 17 (16%) patients were still receiving pembrolizumab. We recorded an objective response in 18 (17%; 95% CI 11–26) of 104 patients. The best overall responses were one (1%) complete and 17 (16%) partial responses; meanwhile, 46 (44%) patients had stable disease, 34 (33%) had progressive disease, and six (6%) patients who did not have a post-baseline assessment on the cutoff date were considered not to be assessable. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 76 (73%) of 104 patients, which were serious in 16 (15%) patients. Grade 3 treatment-related events were reported in 25 (24%) of the 104 patients; the most common were increased aspartate aminotransferase concentration in seven (7%) patients, increased alanine aminotransferase concentration in four (4%) patients, and fatigue in four (4%) patients. One (1%) grade 4 treatment-related event of hyperbilirubinaemia occurred. One death associated with ulcerative oesophagitis was attributed to treatment. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in three (3%) patients, but there were no reported cases of viral flares. Pembrolizumab was effective and tolerable in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who had previously been treated with sorafenib. These results indicate that pembrolizumab might be a treatment option for these patients. This drug is undergoing further assessment in two phase 3, randomised trials as a second-line treatment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Merck & Co, Inc.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1470-2045
    E-ISSN: 1474-5488
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