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  • Von Berg, Andrea  (72)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e37780
    Description: Elevated cholesterol levels in children can be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in later life. In adults, it has been shown that blood lipid levels are strongly influenced by polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase ( FADS ) gene cluster in addition to nutritional and other exogenous and endogenous determinants. Our aim was to investigate whether lipid levels are determined by the FADS genotype already in children and whether this association interacts with dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids. ; The analysis was based on data of 2006 children from two German prospective birth cohort studies. Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides were measured at 10 years of age. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene cluster were genotyped. Dietary n-3 fatty acid intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the association between lipid levels, n-3 fatty acid intake and genotype. ; Individuals carrying the homozygous minor allele had lower levels of total cholesterol [means ratio (MR) ranging from 0.96 (p = 0.0093) to 0.98 (p = 0.2949), depending on SNPs] and LDL [MR between 0.94 (p = 0.0179) and 0.97 (p = 0.2963)] compared to homozygous major allele carriers. Carriers of the heterozygous allele showed lower HDL levels [β between −0.04 (p = 0.0074) to −0.01 (p = 0.3318)] and higher triglyceride levels [MR ranging from 1.06 (p = 0.0065) to 1.07 (p = 0.0028)] compared to homozygous major allele carriers. A higher n-3 PUFA intake was associated with higher concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and lower triglyceride levels, but these associations did not interact with the genotype. ; Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride concentrations may be influenced by the genotype already in 10 year old children. Genetically determined blood lipid levels during childhood might differentially predispose individuals to the development of cardiovascular diseases later in life.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Computational Biology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Pediatrics And Child Health ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, May 2013, Vol.24(3), pp.230-236
    Description: Byline: Gabriele Kohlboeck, Sibylle Koletzko, Carl-Peter Bauer, Andrea Berg, Dietrich Berdel, Ursula Kramer, Beate Schaaf, Irina Lehmann, Olf Herbarth, Joachim Heinrich,, Keywords: asthma; atopy; allergy; behavior problems; epidemiology; depression; comorbidity; affective disorders Abstract Objective To date, there is conflicting evidence whether the association between asthma and depression depends on the atopic or non-atopic asthma phenotype. This study investigates associations between emotional symptoms and atopic and non-atopic asthma in school-aged children. Methods Cross-sectional data on asthma and allergic diseases at the 10-year follow-up of two birth cohorts were collected by parent-reported physician diagnoses. Specific IgE levels including most common inhalant allergens (SX1) and food allergens (FX5) were measured by RAST-CAP FEIA. Atopic asthma was defined as asthma ever and positive specific IgE test, non-atopic asthma as asthma ever and no IgE sensitization. Emotional symptoms were assessed by parent-reported strength and difficulty questionnaire. Logistic regression modeling were applied to determine likelihood of emotional symptoms in children with atopic and non-atopic asthma controlling for socio-demographic factors, body mass index, atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, and pubertal development. Results Non-atopic asthma was associated with about 3-fold higher likelihood of emotional symptoms compared to children with no asthma (ORadj = 2.90, CI95% = 1.46-5.73). Atopic asthma was not associated with emotional symptoms (ORadj = 1.35, CI95% = 0.81-2.26). Conclusions Atopic and non-atopic asthma in children might have different etiologies, whereas for non-atopic asthma, emotional symptoms are relevant, this is not the case in atopic asthma. The relationship between the non-atopic asthma phenotype and emotional symptoms might be dependent on gender. Author Affiliation: Article Note: The GINI-plus Study Group (see Appendix S1). The LISA-plus Study Group (see Appendix S1). Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article
    Keywords: Asthma ; Atopy ; Allergy ; Behavior Problems ; Epidemiology ; Depression ; Comorbidity ; Affective Disorders
    ISSN: 0905-6157
    E-ISSN: 1399-3038
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(5)
    Description: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20–60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.80, p = 6.59×10 −13 ) as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10 −04 ). Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Social And Behavioral Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Dec, 2011, Vol.94(6), p.1803(5)
    Description: Background: Previous analysis in a prospective, population-based cohort reported reduced weight gain in children fed extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHF-C) formula during the first year of life but showed no effect on growth between 1 and 6 y of life. No studies have been conducted in children up to the age of 10 y. Objective: The objective was to investigate potential differences in body mass index (BMI) over the first 10 y of life between infants fed within the intervention period of the first 16 wk of life with partially hydrolyzed whey (pHF-W), extensively hydrolyzed whey (eHF-W), eHF-C, or cow-milk formula (CMF) and infants exclusively breastfed (BF) within the intervention period. Design: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial in full-term neonates with atopic heredity in the German birth cohort German Infant Nutritional Intervention (GINI) followed through the first 10 y of life. Analyses of absolute and World Health Organization (WHO)-standardized BMI trajectories for 1840 infants [pHF-W (n = 253), eHF-W (n = 265), eHF-C (n = 250), CMF (n = 276), and BF (n = 796)] were conducted according to intention-to-treat principles. Results: Except for the previously reported slower BMI gain in infants fed with eHF-C formula within the first year of life, no significant differences in absolute or WHO-standardized BMI trajectories were shown between the pHF-W, eHF-W, eHF-C, CMF, and BF groups thereafter up to the age of 10 y. Conclusions: Extension of the follow-up period from 6 to 10 y for this randomized controlled trial showed no long-term consequences on BMI for the 4 infant formulas considered. These data need to be confirmed in future studies. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.000679.
    Keywords: Childhood Obesity -- Control ; Dietary Protein -- Health Aspects ; Infant Formulas -- Nutritional Aspects ; Body Mass Index -- Measurement
    ISSN: 0002-9165
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, December 2011, Vol.94(6 Suppl), pp.1803S-1807S
    Description: Previous analysis in a prospective, population-based cohort reported reduced weight gain in children fed extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHF-C) formula during the first year of life but showed no effect on growth between 1 and 6 y of life. No studies have been conducted in children up to the age of 10 y. The objective was to investigate potential differences in body mass index (BMI) over the first 10 y of life between infants fed within the intervention period of the first 16 wk of life with partially hydrolyzed whey (pHF-W), extensively hydrolyzed whey (eHF-W), eHF-C, or cow-milk formula (CMF) and infants exclusively breastfed (BF) within the intervention period. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial in full-term neonates with atopic heredity in the German birth cohort German Infant Nutritional Intervention (GINI) followed through the first 10 y of life. Analyses of absolute and World Health Organization (WHO)-standardized BMI trajectories for 1840 infants [pHF-W (n = 253), eHF-W (n = 265), eHF-C (n = 250), CMF (n = 276), and BF (n = 796)] were conducted according to intention-to-treat principles. Except for the previously reported slower BMI gain in infants fed with eHF-C formula within the first year of life, no significant differences in absolute or WHO-standardized BMI trajectories were shown between the pHF-W, eHF-W, eHF-C, CMF, and BF groups thereafter up to the age of 10 y. Extension of the follow-up period from 6 to 10 y for this randomized controlled trial showed no long-term consequences on BMI for the 4 infant formulas considered. These data need to be confirmed in future studies.
    Keywords: Body Mass Index ; Breast Feeding ; Fetal Development -- Drug Effects ; Infant Formula -- Chemistry ; Milk Proteins -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00029165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, March 2011, Vol.127(3), pp.836-838
    Description: The World Health Organization promotes exclusive breast-feeding for at least 6 months, particularly for developing countries to reduce the risks of infection and malnutrition. [...]it is very surprising that the authors recommend feeding CMP-based formula during the first 2 weeks of life to all infants. Parents with atopic disease in the family may consider later introduction of CMP. [...]reverse causality cannot be excluded without considering the family history for atopy in all cases and controls.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0091-6749
    E-ISSN: 1097-6825
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Jan, 2010, Vol.118(1), p.150(5)
    Keywords: Pregnant Women -- Surveys ; Smoking -- Surveys ; Child Behavior -- Surveys
    ISSN: 0091-6765
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental health perspectives, August 2016, Vol.124(8), pp.1291-8
    Description: Epidemiological studies have identified associations between air pollution and green space access with type 2 diabetes in adults. However, it remains unclear to what extent associations with greenness are attributable to air pollution exposure. We aimed to investigate associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and satellite-derived greenness with insulin resistance in adolescents. A total of 837 participants of two German birth cohorts (LISAplus and GINIplus) were included in the analysis. Generalized additive models were used to determine the association of individual satellite-derived greenness defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), long-term air pollution exposure estimated by land-use regression (LUR) models with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 15-year-old adolescents. Models were adjusted for study area, cohort, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics such as body mass index, physical activity, and smoking. Increases of 2 SDs in nitrogen dioxide (NO2; 8.9 μg/m3) and particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10; 6.7 μg/m3) were significantly associated with 11.4% (95% CI: 4.4, 18.9) and 11.4% (95% CI: 0.4, 23.7) higher HOMA-IR. A 2-SD increase in NDVI in a 1,000-m buffer (0.2 units) was significantly associated with a lower HOMA-IR (-7.4%; 95% CI: -13.3, -1.1). Associations tended to be stronger in adolescents who spent more time outside and in those with lower socioeconomic status. In combined models including both air pollution and greenness, only NO2 remained significantly associated with HOMA-IR, whereas effect estimates for all other exposures attenuated after adjustment for NO2. NO2, often considered as a marker of traffic, was independently associated with insulin resistance. The observed association between higher greenness exposure and lower HOMA-IR in adolescents might thus be attributable mainly to the lower co-exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Thiering E, Markevych I, Brüske I, Fuertes E, Kratzsch J, Sugiri D, Hoffmann B, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Koletzko S, Berdel D, Heinrich J. 2016. Associations of residential long-term air pollution exposures and satellite-derived greenness with insulin resistance in German adolescents. Environ Health Perspect 124:1291-1298; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509967.
    Keywords: Air Pollution -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 -- Epidemiology ; Environmental Exposure -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Insulin Resistance -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00916765
    E-ISSN: 1552-9924
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Health Perspectives, August, 2016, Vol.124(8), p.1291
    Description: BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have identified associations between air pollution and green space access with type 2 diabetes in adults. However, it remains unclear to what extent associations with greenness are attributable to air pollution exposure. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and satellite-derived greenness with insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: A total of 837 participants of two German birth cohorts (LISAplus and GINIplus) were included in the analysis. Generalized additive models were used to determine the association of individual satellite-derived greenness defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), long-term air pollution exposure estimated by land-use regression (LUR) models with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 15-year-old adolescents. Models were adjusted for study area, cohort, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics such as body mass index, physical activity, and smoking. RESULTS: Increases of 2 SDs in nitrogen dioxide (N[O.sub.2]; 8.9 [micro]g/[m.sup.3]) and particulate matter [less than or equal to] 10 [micro]m in diameter ([PM.sub.10]; 6.7 [micro]g/[m.sup.3]) were significantly associated with 11.4% (95% CI: 4.4, 18.9) and 11.4% (95% CI: 0.4, 23.7) higher HOMA-IR. A 2-SD increase in NDVI in a 1,000-m buffer (0.2 units) was significantly associated with a lower HOMA-IR (-7.4%; 95% CI: -13.3, -1.1). Associations tended to be stronger in adolescents who spent more time outside and in those with lower socioeconomic status. In combined models including both air pollution and greenness, only N[O.sub.2] remained significantly associated with HOMA-IR, whereas effect estimates for all other exposures attenuated after adjustment for N[O.sub.2]. CONCLUSIONS: N[O.sub.2], often considered as a marker of traffic, was independently associated with insulin resistance. The observed association between higher greenness exposure and lower HOMA-IR in adolescents might thus be attributable mainly to the lower co-exposure to traffic-related air pollution. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509967
    Keywords: Insulin Resistance -- Analysis ; Air Pollution -- Analysis ; Cardiovascular Diseases -- Development And Progression ; Type 2 Diabetes -- Development And Progression ; Youth -- Health Aspects
    ISBN: 0003807499000
    ISSN: 0091-6765
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, May 20, 2014, Vol.14(1)
    Description: Background According to Ulrich's psychoevolutionary theory, contact with green environments mitigates stress by activating the parasympathetic system, (specifically, by decreasing blood pressure (BP)). Experimental studies have confirmed this biological effect. However, greenness effects on BP have not yet been explored using an observational study design. We assessed whether surrounding residential greenness is associated with BP in 10 year-old German children. Methods Systolic and diastolic BPs were assessed in 10 year-old children residing in the Munich and Wesel study areas of the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. Complete exposure, outcome and covariate data were available for 2,078 children. Residential surrounding greenness was defined as the mean of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values, derived from Landsat 5 TM satellite images, in circular 500-m buffers around current home addresses of participants. Generalized additive models assessed pooled and area-specific associations between BP and residential greenness categorized into area-specific tertiles. Results In the pooled adjusted model, the systolic BP of children living at residences with low and moderate greenness was 0.90 [+ or -] 0.50 mmHg (p-value = 0.073) and 1.23 [+ or -] 0.50 mmHg (p-value = 0.014) higher, respectively, than the systolic BP of children living in areas of high greenness. Similarly, the diastolic BP of children living in areas with low and moderate greenness was 0.80 [+ or -] 0.38 mmHg (p-value = 0.033) and 0.96 [+ or -] 0.38 mmHg (p-value = 0.011) higher, respectively, than children living in areas with high greenness. These associations were not influenced by environmental stressors (temperature, air pollution, noise annoyance, altitude and urbanisation level). When stratified by study area, associations were significant among children residing in the urbanised Munich area but null for those in the rural Wesel area. Conclusions Lower residential greenness was positively associated with higher BP in 10 year-old children living in an urbanised area. Further studies varying in participants' age, geographical area and urbanisation level are required. Keywords: Greenness, NDVI, Blood pressure, Children, Green spaces
    Keywords: Air Pollution -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1471-2458
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