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  • Von Wilpert, Klaus  (8)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2012, Vol.175(2), pp.221-235
    Description: The hydraulic properties of soils, their ability to store and conduct water, mainly govern the availability of soil water for plants. Information on the hydraulic properties is needed, for the quantification of drought risk at a given site. Furthermore, knowledge of the water transport is the precondition for the estimation of element fluxes in the soil, when predicting element leaching from the root zone to the groundwater. For forest soils, only few systematic investigations of their hydraulic properties exist. Within the 2nd forest‐soil survey of Germany, soil samples were taken along a regular 8 km × 8 km grid in the forests of the State of Baden‐Württemberg and the hydraulic properties were estimated in the laboratory by multistep outflow experiments. Besides the soil‐hydraulic measurements, numerous additional soil chemical and physical analyses were carried out and comprehensive profile descriptions were compiled and integrated in a hydraulic database. Based on this database, multiple‐linear‐regression techniques were used to develop pedotransfer functions for the water‐retention curve and the unsaturated‐hydraulic‐conductivity curve using the parametric models of Mualem/van‐Genuchten. Our work fills a gap since to our knowledge, no pedotransfer functions for the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity for forest soils exist so far. The predictive accuracy of the established pedotransfer functions, both for the water‐retention curve and the hydraulic‐conductivity curve, is in the range of (and in some cases better than) other published pedotransfer functions that were mostly derived for agricultural soils.
    Keywords: Water Retention ; Hydraulic Conductivity ; Forest Soils ; Pedotransfer Functions
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2011, Vol.174(1), pp.65-89
    Description: This study evaluates the acidification status and trends in streams of forested mountain ranges in Germany in consequence of reduced anthropogenic deposition since the mid 1980s. The analysis is based on water quality data for 86 long-term monitored streams in the Ore Mountains, the Bavarian Forest, the Fichtelgebirge, the Harz Mountains, the Spessart, the Black Forest, the Thuringian Forest, and the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge of Germany and the Vosges of France. Within the observation period, which starts for the individual streams between 1980 and 2001 and ends between 1990 and 2009, trends in chemical water quality were calculated with the Seasonal Mann Kendall Test. About 87% of the streams show significant ( p 〈 0.05) negative trends in sulfate. The general reduction in acid deposition resulted in increased pH values (significant for 66% of the streams) and subsequently decreased base cation concentrations in the stream water (for calcium significant in 58% and magnesium 49% of the streams). Reaction products of acidification such as aluminum (significant for 50%) or manganese (significant for 69%) also decreased. Nitrate (52% with significant decrease) and chloride (38% with significant increase) have less pronounced trends and more variable spatial patterns. For the quotient of acidification, which is the ratio of the sum of base cations and the sum of acid anions, no clear trend is observed: in 44% of the monitored streams values significantly decreased and in 23% values significantly increased. A notable observation is the increasing DOC concentration, which is significant for 55% of the observed streams.
    Keywords: Water quality ; Acidification ; Forested catchments ; Deposition ; Germany
    ISSN: 0167-6369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Processes, 2014, Vol.3(1), pp.1-17
    Description: Abstract Introduction Conceptual hydrological models are useful tools to support catchment water management. However, the identifiability of parameters and structural uncertainties in conceptual rainfall-runoff modeling prove to be a difficult task. Here, we aim to evaluate the performance of a conceptual semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model, HBV-light, with emphasis on parameter identifiability, uncertainty, and model structural validity. Results The results of a regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) show that most of the model parameters are highly sensitive when runoff signatures or combinations of different objective functions are used. Results based on the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method further show that most of the model parameters are well constrained, showing higher parameter identifiability and lower model uncertainty when runoff signatures or combined objective functions are used. Finally, the dynamic identifiability analysis (DYNIA) shows different types of parameter behavior and reveals that model parameters have a higher identifiability in periods where they play a crucial role in representing the predicted runoff. Conclusions The HBV-light model is generally able to simulate the runoff in the Pailugou catchment with an acceptable accuracy. Model parameter sensitivity is largely dependent upon the objective function used for the model evaluation in the sensitivity analysis. More frequent runoff observations would substantially increase the knowledge on the rainfall-runoff transformation in the catchment and, specifically, improve the distinction of fast surface-near runoff and interflow components in their contribution to the total catchment runoff. Our results highlight the importance of identifying the periods when intensive monitoring is critical for deriving parameter values of reduced uncertainty.
    Keywords: Dynamic identifiability analysis ; HBV-light model ; Hydrological modeling ; Sensitivity analysis ; Uncertainty analysis
    E-ISSN: 2192-1709
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Forest Science, 12/2017, Vol.74(4)
    Description: Key message The combination of technical treatments and planting of alder trees in a compacted forest soil improves the circulation of air and water through the pore system. This leads to decreases in CO2concentrations and increases in root growth in the soil. Both are indicative of an initial recovery of soil structure. Context The compaction of forest soils, caused by forest machinery, has as a principal consequence: the destruction of soil structure and thus the reduction of the soil aeration status. Thus, the gas exchange between soil and atmosphere is reduced and the depth propagation of roots is limited, resulting in the shortage of water and nutrient supplies for trees. Aims This research aimed at detecting the first stages of recovery of soil structure in a compacted forest soil, which was treated with a combination of techniques (i.e., planting tree species, mulching, addition of lime), which could presumably accelerate the regeneration of soil structure. Methods The variation of CO2 concentrations and the dynamics of root growth were repeatedly measured. Linear mixed models were developed in order to test the effects of the treatments and the planting of trees on soil aeration, as well as to identify the influence of the different environmental effects on CO2 concentration in soil. Results The planting of root-active trees showed significant effects on decreases in CO2 concentrations. However, during the short-term observation, some negative effects occurred especially for the mulched sites. Nevertheless, all applied technical treatments promoted an improved soil aeration and a higher root growth compared to untreated sites which points to an initial enhanced recovery of soil structure. Pronounced seasonal and interannual variations of soil respiration were highly influenced by soil temperature and soil water content variations. Conclusion An initial regeneration of soil structure is indicated by distinct changes of the soil aeration status. This regeneration is partially enhanced by the applied treatments. The quantitative potential of the regeneration techniques needs a longer observation period for mid- and long-term soil recoveries.
    Keywords: Water Circulation ; Soil Compaction ; Propagation ; Soil Compaction ; Soil Temperature ; Soil Temperature ; Water Depth ; Soil Water ; Aeration ; Soil Water ; Gas Exchange ; Moisture Content ; Carbon Dioxide ; Forest Soils ; Trees ; Soil Aeration ; Soil Lime ; Forests ; Soil Structure ; Variation ; Trees ; Gas Exchange ; Compacted Soils ; Gas Exchange ; Forest Soils ; Water Content ; Environmental Effects ; Planting ; Soil Temperature ; Aeration ; Environmental Effects ; Environmental Effects ; Recovery ; Machinery ; Machinery ; Carbon Dioxide ; Soil Improvement ; Soil Structure ; Soil Structure ; Water Content ; Annual Variations ; Soil Aeration ; Trees ; Regeneration ; Forests ; Moisture Content ; Carbon Dioxide ; Atmospheric Models ; Aeration ; Planting ; Soil Dynamics ; Compacted Forest Soils ; Co2concentrations ; Root Growth ; Rhizotron Window ; Soil Temperature ; Soil Water Tension;
    ISSN: 1286-4560
    E-ISSN: 1297-966X
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2016, Vol.179(4), pp.425-438
    Description: Understanding and quantification of phosphorus (P) fluxes are key requirements for predictions of future forest ecosystems changes as well as for transferring lessons learned from natural ecosystems to croplands and plantations. This review summarizes and evaluates the recent knowledge on mechanisms, magnitude, and relevance by which dissolved and colloidal inorganic and organic P forms can be translocated within or exported from forest ecosystems. Attention is paid to hydrological pathways of P losses at the soil profile and landscape scales, and the subsequent influence of P on aquatic ecosystems. New (unpublished) data from the German Priority Program 1685 “” were added to provide up‐to‐date flux‐based information. Nitrogen (N) additions increase the release of water‐transportable P forms. Most P found in percolates and pore waters belongs to the so‐called dissolved organic P (DOP) fractions, rich in orthophosphate‐monoesters and also containing some orthophosphate‐diesters. Total solution P concentrations range from ca. 1 to 400 µg P L, with large variations among forest stands. Recent sophisticated analyses revealed that large portions of the DOP in forest stream water can comprise natural nanoparticles and fine colloids which under extreme conditions may account for 40–100% of the P losses. Their translocation within preferential flow passes may be rapid, mediated by storm events. The potential total P loss through leaching into subsoils and with streams was found to be less than 50 mg P m a, suggesting effects on ecosystems at centennial to millennium scale. All current data are based on selected snapshots only. Quantitative measurements of P fluxes in temperate forest systems are nearly absent in the literature, probably due to main research focus on the C and N cycles. Therefore, we lack complete ecosystem‐based assessments of dissolved and colloidal P fluxes within and from temperate forest systems.
    Keywords: Forest Ecosystem ; Phosphorus ; Fluxes ; Soil ; Processes ; Hydrology
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Plant Science, 01 March 2019, Vol.10
    Description: In response to a wide-spread decline in forest vitality associated with acid rain in the 1980s, liming of soils has been implemented in many federal states in Germany to buffer further acid deposition and improve availability of nutrients such...
    Keywords: Norway Spruce ; Liming ; Drought Tolerance ; Resistance ; Resilience ; Botany
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
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  • 7
    In: Frontiers in Plant Science, 2019, Vol.10
    Description: In response to a wide-spread decline in forest vitality associated with acid rain in the 1980s, liming of soils has been implemented in many federal states in Germany to buffer further acid deposition and improve availability of nutrients such as calcium and magnesium. As a consequence, it may also increase vitality and depth of fine-root systems and hence improve the drought tolerance of species such as Norway spruce [ Picea abies (L.) Karst.], which occurs mostly on acidic forest soils. However, the influence of repeated liming on drought tolerance of trees has never been studied. Here we compared the resistance, recovery and resilience of radial growth in P. abies in relation to drought in limed and control stands and assessed how the dosage and interval between lime application and drought year influences the radial growth response of P. abies . We analyzed radial growth in 198 P. abies trees of six experimental sites in south–west Germany. An analysis of the radial increment over the last 30 years allowed the analysis of drought events shortly after the first liming (short-term effect) as well as posterior drought events (mid- to long-term effects). Generalized linear models were developed to assess the influence of drought intensity, site and period since first liming on the drought tolerance of Norway spruce. Regardless of drought intensity, there was no general increase in drought resistance of Norway spruce in response to liming. However, drought resistance of radial growth improved on a loamy site that was additionally treated with wood ash 30 years after the first lime application. Furthermore, recovery and resilience of radial growth after severe drought events were generally better in spruce trees of limed treatments. This indicates a shorter stress period in spruce trees growing on limed soil, which may reduce their susceptibility to secondary, drought-related pests and pathogens.
    Keywords: Plant Science ; Norway Spruce ; Liming ; Drought Tolerance ; Resistance ; Resilience
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
    Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM)
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  • 8
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