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  • Wechalekar, Ashutosh D
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.), February 2012, Vol.26(2), pp.161-2, 164
    Description: The authors present two cases that illustrate the frequent problem of late diagnosis that can arise when patients present with nonspecific clinical features. It is also possible that a lingering perception that amyloidosis is untreatable may discourage further diagnostic workup, which generally requires...
    Keywords: Amyloidosis -- Drug Therapy ; Immunoglobulin Light Chains -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0890-9091
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 25 June 2016, Vol.387(10038), pp.2641-2654
    Description: Tissue deposition of protein fibrils causes a group of rare diseases called systemic amyloidoses. This Seminar focuses on changes in their epidemiology, the current approach to diagnosis, and advances in treatment. Systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common of these conditions, but wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is increasingly being diagnosed. Typing of amyloid fibrils, a critical determinant of therapy, has improved with the wide availability of laser capture and mass spectrometry from fixed histological tissue sections. Specific and accurate evaluation of cardiac amyloidosis is now possible using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac repurposing of bone scintigraphy tracers. Survival in AL amyloidosis has improved markedly as novel chemotherapy agents have become available, but challenges remain in advanced disease. Early diagnosis, a key to better outcomes, still remains elusive. Broadening the amyloid-specific therapeutic landscape to include RNA inhibitors, fibril formation stabilisers and inhibitors, and immunotherapeutic targeting of amyloid deposits holds promise to transform outcomes in systemic amyloidoses.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Circulation, Nov 25, 2014, Vol.130(22)
    Keywords: Electrocardiography – Usage ; Myocardial Diseases – Risk Factors ; Myocardial Diseases – Care and Treatment ; Heart Failure – Risk Factors ; Heart Failure – Care and Treatment ; Elderly – Health Aspects
    ISSN: 0009-7322
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  • 4
    In: Circulation, 2015, Vol.132(16), pp.1570-1579
    Description: BACKGROUND—: The prognosis and treatment of the 2 main types of cardiac amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, are substantially influenced by cardiac involvement. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is a reference standard for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis, but its potential for stratifying risk is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS—: Two hundred fifty prospectively recruited subjects, 122 patients with ATTR amyloid, 9 asymptomatic mutation carriers, and 119 patients with AL amyloidosis, underwent LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 24±13 months. LGE was performed with phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) and without (magnitude only). These were compared with extracellular volume measured with T1 mapping. PSIR was superior to magnitude-only inversion recovery LGE because PSIR always nulled the tissue (blood or myocardium) with the longest T1 (least gadolinium). LGE was classified into 3 patterns: none, subendocardial, and transmural, which were associated with increasing amyloid burden as defined by extracellular volume (P〈0.0001), with transitions from none to subendocardial LGE at an extracellular volume of 0.40 to 0.43 (AL) and 0.39 to 0.40 (ATTR) and to transmural at 0.48 to 0.55 (AL) and 0.47 to 0.59 (ATTR). Sixty-seven patients (27%) died. Transmural LGE predicted death (hazard ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–13.7; P〈0.0001) and remained independent after adjustment for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, ejection fraction, stroke volume index, E/E′, and left ventricular mass index (hazard ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–13.1; P〈0.05). CONCLUSIONS—: There is a continuum of cardiac involvement in systemic AL and ATTR amyloidosis. Transmural LGE is determined reliably by PSIR and represents advanced cardiac amyloidosis. The PSIR technique provides incremental information on outcome even after adjustment for known prognostic factors.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0009-7322
    E-ISSN: 15244539
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Arthritis & Rheumatism, April 2013, Vol.65(4), pp.1116-1121
    Description: AA amyloidosis is a life-threatening complication of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPFS), which are otherwise often compatible with normal life expectancy. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics, presentation, natural history, and response to treatment in 46 patients who had been referred for evaluation at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre. Disease activity was monitored by serial measurement of serum amyloid A. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum creatinine and albumin levels, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria from 24-hour urine collections. The amyloid load was measured by serum amyloid P scintigraphy. Twenty-four patients had familial Mediterranean fever, 12 patients had tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, 6 patients had cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, and 4 patients had mevalonate kinase deficiency. The median age at onset of HPFS was 5 years; median age at presentation with AA amyloidosis was 38 years. Diagnosis of an HPFS had not been considered prior to presentation with AA amyloidosis in 23 patients (50%). Eleven patients (24%) had end-stage renal failure (ESRF) at presentation; of these, 3 had received transplants prior to referral. A further 13 patients developed ESRF over the followup period, with 10 undergoing renal transplantation. The median time to progression to ESRF from onset of AA amyloidosis was 3.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2-8), with a median time to transplant of 4 years (IQR 3-6). Eleven patients (24%) died. The median survival in the entire cohort was 19 years from diagnosis of AA amyloidosis. Of the 37 patients who were treated successfully, or in whom at least partial suppression of the underlying HPFS was achieved, 17 (46%) showed amyloid regression, 14 (38%) showed a stable amyloid load, and 2 (5%) showed increased amyloid deposition over the followup period. AA amyloidosis remains a challenging and serious late complication of HPFS; however, outcomes are excellent when HPFS is diagnosed early enough to allow effective treatment, thus preventing or retarding further amyloid deposition and organ damage.
    Keywords: Amyloidosis -- Etiology ; Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases -- Complications ; Serum Amyloid A Protein -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0004-3591
    E-ISSN: 1529-0131
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Circulation, Nov 25, Vol.130(22)
    Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Imaging – Usage ; Amyloidosis – Risk Factors ; Amyloidosis – Diagnosis
    ISSN: 0009-7322
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Blood, 16 August 2018, Vol.132(7), pp.761-764
    Keywords: Immunoglobulin M ; Bendamustine Hydrochloride -- Administration & Dosage ; Immunoglobulin Light-Chain Amyloidosis -- Drug Therapy ; Rituximab -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00064971
    E-ISSN: 1528-0020
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Blood, 01 March 2018, Vol.131(9), pp.974-981
    Description: To date, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Schnitzler syndrome remain obscure, in particular, the interplay between the monoclonal protein and increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production, although interest in the contribution of genetic factors has been fueled by detection of somatic mosaicism in 2 patients with the variant-type Schnitzler syndrome. At 2 specialist UK centers, we have identified 21 patients who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Schnitzler syndrome with urticarial rash, fever, arthralgia, and bone pain; 47% reported weight loss, 40% fatigue, and 21% lymphadenopathy. An immunoglobulin M (IgM) κ paraprotein was detected in 86%; the remainder had IgM λ or IgG κ. Patients underwent searches for germ line and somatic mutations using next-generation sequencing technology. Moreover, we designed a panel consisting of 32 autoinflammatory genes to explore genetic susceptibility factor(s) to Schnitzler syndrome. Genetic analysis revealed neither germ line nor somatic , , , or mutations, apart from 1 patient with a germ line p.V198M substitution. The proinflammatory cytokines and extracellular apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with caspase recruitment domain (ASC) measured in the serum of Schnitzler syndrome patients during active disease were significantly higher than healthy controls. Ninety-five percent of our cohort achieved a complete response to recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra). Our findings do not support a role for somatic mosaicism in disease pathogenesis; although elevated levels of ASC, IL-6, and IL-18 in patients' serum, and the response to anakinra, suggest that Schnitzler syndrome is associated with upregulated inflammasome activation. Despite its rarity, Schnitzler syndrome is an important diagnosis as treatment with IL-1 antagonists dramatically improves quality of life for patients.
    Keywords: Germ-Line Mutation ; Schnitzler Syndrome ; Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00064971
    E-ISSN: 1528-0020
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Kidney International, December 2017, Vol.92(6), pp.1476-1483
    Description: Renal involvement causing progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) is present in 70% of patients with systemic Ig light-chain (AL) amyloidosis at diagnosis. Chemotherapy that substantially suppresses free light chain production is associated with improved patient survival, but its benefit in delaying the onset of renal replacement therapy among patients who present with established advanced CKD has not been studied. To evaluate this, we studied 1000 patients enrolled in the prospective UK AL amyloidosis chemotherapy study (ALchemy). Of these, 84 patients had advanced amyloid-related CKD defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 20 ml/min/1.73 m . We determined outcomes among these 84 patients, who had a median eGFR of 10 ml/min/1.73 m , in relation to response to chemotherapy evaluated at three, six, and 12 months from baseline. Patients who achieved suppression of 90% or more in their amyloidogenic free light chain (dFLC) within three months of baseline had significantly better overall survival, prolonged time to dialysis, and prolonged time to the composite endpoint of ‘death or dialysis’ compared to those who achieved lesser degrees of clonal response at the same time point. Even when this target of greater than 90% dFLC response was achieved but was delayed beyond 3 months, it was associated with worse outcomes. Cox regression analyses confirmed that a 90% or better dFLC response within 3 months was the only significant independent predictor of all three of these outcome measures. Thus, renal survival among patients with systemic immunologic light chain amyloidosis who present with advanced CKD is strongly dependent upon the magnitude and speed with which the underlying hematologic disorder is suppressed by chemotherapy.
    Keywords: Amyloid ; Amyloidosis ; Chemotherapy ; Chronic Kidney Disease ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0085-2538
    E-ISSN: 1523-1755
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  • 10
    In: Rheumatology, 2017, Vol. 56(2), pp.209-213
    Description: Objective. This study was undertaken to characterize the phenotype and response to treatment in patients with autosomal dominant FMF caused by MEFV p.M694del mutation and to use haplotype reconstruction to investigate the possibility of common ancestry. Methods. MEFV gene was analysed in 3500 subjects with suspected FMF referred to a single UK centre between 2002 and 2014. Patients with p.M694del underwent additional screening of the SAA1 gene as well as haplotype reconstruction of the MEFV locus. Results. The p.M694del variant was identified in 21 patients, sharing an identical disease haplotype that appears to have arisen about 550 years ago. The SAA1.1 allele was found in four patients, including two with AA amyloidosis. The clinical features comprised typical FMF symptoms with median age at onset of 18 years; three patients presented with AA amyloidosis, of whom two had had symptoms of FMF in retrospect. Fifteen patients had received colchicine treatment, all with excellent responses. Conclusion. The p.M694del variant is associated with autosomal dominantly inherited FMF in Northern European Caucasians. Symptoms may develop later in life than in classical recessive FMF but are otherwise similar, as is the response to colchicine treatment. The 14% incidence of AA amyloidosis may reflect delay in diagnosis associated with extreme rarity of FMF in this population. The common haplotype suggests a single founder living in about 1460.
    Keywords: Fmf ; Mefv Gene ; Colchicine ; Haplotype ; Aa Amyloidosis ; Dominant Inheritance
    ISSN: 1462-0324
    E-ISSN: 1462-0332
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