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  • Wirth, Christian  (29)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 29 March 2016, Vol.113(13), pp.3557-62
    Description: Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality.
    Keywords: Fundiveurope ; Biodiversity ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Spatial Scale ; Β-Diversity ; Biodiversity ; Forests
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Ecology, January 2013, Vol.101(1), pp.220-230
    Description: Partitioning of tree mortality into different modes of death allows the tracing and mechanistic modelling of individual key processes of forest dynamics each varying depending on site, species and individual risk factors. This, in turn, may improve long‐term predictions of the development of old‐growth forests. Six different individual tree mortality modes (uprooted and snapped (both with or without rot as a predisposing factor), standing dead and crushed by other trees) were analysed, and statistical models were derived for three tree species (European beech Fagus sylvatica, hornbeam Carpinus betulus and common ash Fraxinus excelsior) based on a repeated inventory of more than 13 000 trees in a 28 ha near‐natural deciduous forest in Central Germany. The frequently described U‐shaped curve of size‐dependent mortality was observed in beech and hornbeam (but not ash) and could be explained by the joint operation of processes related to the six distinct mortality modes. The results for beech, the most abundant species, suggest that each mortality mode is prevalent in different life‐history stages: small trees died mostly standing or being crushed, medium‐sized trees had the highest chance of survival, and very large trees experienced increased rates of mortality, mainly by uprooting or snapping. Reduced growth as a predictor also played a role but only for standing dead, all other mortality modes showed no relationship to tree growth. Synthesis. Tree mortality can be partitioned into distinct processes, and species tend to differ in their susceptibility to one or more of them. This forms a fundamental basis for the understanding of forest dynamics in natural forests, and any mechanistic modelling of mortality in vegetation models could be improved by correctly addressing and formulating the various mortality processes. Modelled annual mortality logits and probabilities over d.b.h. (cm) for beech. Median estimates and 95% credible interval. Tree mortality can be partitioned into different processes related to six distinct mortality modes, jointly explaining the emergent ‐shaped curve of size‐dependent mortality. This forms a fundamental basis for the understanding of forest dynamics in natural forests and may improve mechanistic modelling thereof.
    Keywords: Beech ; Demographic Trait ; Growth Estimation ; Growth‐Related Mortality ; Longevity ; Mortality Mode ; Mortality Model ; Plant Population And Community Dynamics ; Size‐Related Mortality
    ISSN: 0022-0477
    E-ISSN: 1365-2745
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Ecology, 01/2013, Vol.101(1), pp.220-230
    Description: Partitioning of tree mortality into different modes of death allows the tracing and mechanistic modelling of individual key processes of forest dynamics each varying depending on site, species and individual risk factors. This, in turn, may improve long-term predictions of the development of old-growth forests.Six different individual tree mortality modes (uprooted and snapped (both with or without rot as a predisposing factor), standing dead and crushed by other trees) were analysed, and statistical models were derived for three tree species (European beech Fagus sylvatica, hornbeam Carpinus betulus and common ash Fraxinus excelsior) based on a repeated inventory of more than 13 000 trees in a 28 ha near-natural deciduous forest in Central Germany.The frequently described U-shaped curve of size-dependent mortality was observed in beech and hornbeam (but not ash) and could be explained by the joint operation of processes related to the six distinct mortality modes. The results for beech, the most abundant species, suggest that each mortality mode is prevalent in different life-history stages: small trees died mostly standing or being crushed, medium-sized trees had the highest chance of survival, and very large trees experienced increased rates of mortality, mainly by uprooting or snapping. Reduced growth as a predictor also played a role but only for standing dead, all other mortality modes showed no relationship to tree growth.Synthesis. Tree mortality can be partitioned into distinct processes, and species tend to differ in their susceptibility to one or more of them. This forms a fundamental basis for the understanding of forest dynamics in natural forests, and any mechanistic modelling of mortality in vegetation models could be improved by correctly addressing and formulating the various mortality processes. Modelled annual mortality logits and probabilities over d.b.h. (cm) for beech. Median estimates and 95% credible interval. Tree mortality can be partitioned into different processes related to six distinct mortality modes, jointly explaining the emergent U-shaped curve of size-dependent mortality. This forms a fundamental basis for the understanding of forest dynamics in natural forests and may improve mechanistic modelling thereof.
    Keywords: Mortality ; Mortality ; Carpinus Betulus ; Ash ; 1010 ; Environment ; 04040;
    ISSN: Journal of Ecology
    E-ISSN: 00220477
    E-ISSN: 13652745
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 05 October 2018, Vol.362(6410), pp.80-83
    Description: Biodiversity experiments have shown that species loss reduces ecosystem functioning in grassland. To test whether this result can be extrapolated to forests, the main contributors to terrestrial primary productivity, requires large-scale experiments. We manipulated tree species richness by planting more than 150,000 trees in plots with 1 to 16 species. Simulating multiple extinction scenarios, we found that richness strongly increased stand-level productivity. After 8 years, 16-species mixtures had accumulated over twice the amount of carbon found in average monocultures and similar amounts as those of two commercial monocultures. Species richness effects were strongly associated with functional and phylogenetic diversity. A shrub addition treatment reduced tree productivity, but this reduction was smaller at high shrub species richness. Our results encourage multispecies afforestation strategies to restore biodiversity and mitigate climate change.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Climate Change ; Extinction, Biological ; Forests ; Trees -- Classification
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 July 2015, Vol.6(7), pp.2484-2504
    Description: Large dead wood is an important structural component of forest ecosystems and a main component of forest carbon cycles. CO2 emissions from dead wood can be used as a proxy for actual decomposition rates. The main drivers of CO2 emission rates...
    Keywords: Wood-Inhabiting Fungi ; Temperate Forests ; Biodiversity Exploratories ; Forest Management ; Infrared Gas Analyzer ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Description: Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality....
    Keywords: Β-Diversity ; Biodiversity ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Fundiveurope ; Spatial Scale
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    Source: DataCite
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  • 7
    In: Global Change Biology, October 2009, Vol.15(10), pp.2431-2449
    Description: Wood represents the defining feature of forest systems, and often the carbon in woody debris has a long residence time. Globally, coarse dead wood contains 36–72 Pg C, and understanding what controls the fate of this C is important for predicting C cycle responses to global change. The fate of a piece of wood may include one or more of the following: microbial decomposition, combustion, consumption by insects, and physical degradation. The probability of each fate is a function of both the abiotic environment and the wood traits of the species. The wood produced by different species varies substantially in chemical, micro‐ and macro‐morphological traits; many of these characteristics of living species have ‘afterlife’ effects on the fate and turnover rate of dead wood. The colonization of dead wood by microbes and their activity depends on a large suite of wood chemical and anatomical traits, as well as whole‐plant traits such as stem‐diameter distributions. Fire consumption is driven by a slightly narrower range of traits with little dependence on wood anatomy. Wood turnover due to insects mainly depends on wood density and secondary chemistry. Physical degradation is a relatively minor loss pathway for most systems, which depends on wood chemistry and environmental conditions. We conclude that information about the traits of woody plants could be extremely useful for modeling and predicting rates of wood turnover across ecosystems. We demonstrate how this trait‐based approach is currently limited by oversimplified treatment of dead wood pools in several leading global C models and by a lack of quantitative empirical data linking woody plant traits with the probability and rate of each turnover pathway. Explicitly including plant traits and woody debris pools in global vegetation climate models would improve predictions of wood turnover and its feedback to climate.
    Keywords: C Cycle ; Carbon ; Decomposition ; Fire ; Microbial Decay ; Termites ; Wood
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 8
    In: Oikos, May 2019, Vol.128(5), pp.701-715
    Description: While the number of studies on the role of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning is steadily increasing, a key component of biogeochemical cycling in forests, dead wood decay, has been largely neglected. It remains widely unknown whether and how dead wood decay is affected by diversity loss in forests. We studied the hierarchical effects of tree species diversity on wood decay rates in a subtropical forest landscape in southeast China via its influence on fungal OTU richness and invertebrate diversity using piecewise structural equation models. The experiment was conducted in natural forest plots that span a wide gradient of tree species diversity embedded in a heterogeneous topography. To account for interactions between macro‐invertebrates and fungi, that potentially modify the influence of tree biodiversity and climate on dead wood decay, we compared a macro‐invertebrate exclusion treatment with a control treatment that allowed access to all types of decomposers. Diversity effects of trees on wood decay rates were mostly negative and mediated by the diversity of macro‐invertebrates. However, the effects of tree species diversity or fungal OTU richness and macro‐invertebrate diversity on wood decay rates were comparatively weak. Temperature affected decay rates positively and had the strongest influence in all treatments. While the exclusion of macro‐invertebrates did not lead to a reduction of wood decay rates, our results suggest that they may however have a mediating role in the process. In the presence of invertebrates the predictability of wood decay rates was higher and we observed a tendency of a stronger temperature control. Our results suggest that there is evidence for diversity effects on wood decomposition, but the temperature control is still more important. Thus, an increase in mean annual temperature will increase carbon and nutrient turnover through wood decomposition in subtropical forest irrespective of biotic composition.
    Keywords: Bef-China ; Biodiversity ; Coarse Woody Debris ; Decay ; Fungal Otu Richness ; Invertebrate Diversity
    ISSN: 0030-1299
    E-ISSN: 1600-0706
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 2016
    Description: There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems.
    Keywords: Earth And Environmental Sciences ; Species Richness ; Soil Microbial Biomass ; Statistical Inevitability ; Current Knowledge ; Extraction Method ; Plant Diversity ; Services ; Nitrogen ; Carbon ; Challenges
    ISSN: 2041-1723
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  • 10
    In: Journal Of Plant Ecology, 2017, Vol. 10(1), pp.111-127
    Keywords: Soil Fertility ; Topography ; Soil Erosion ; Matter Transport ; Biodiversity ; Dsm ; Carbon Stocks ; Tree ; Forest ; Bef - China ; China
    ISSN: 1752-9921
    E-ISSN: 1752-993X
    Source: Oxford University Press
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