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  • Yu, Chan  (8)
  • Baveye, Philippe C  (8)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, 01 June 2017, Vol.5
    Description: Groundwater contamination by oocysts of the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a significant cause of animal and human disease worldwide. Although research has been undertaken in the past to determine how specific physical and chemical properties of soils affect the risk of groundwater...
    Keywords: Cryptosporidium ; Microorganisms ; Groundwater ; Soil Transport ; Qpcr ; Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 2296-665X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, July 2018, Vol.238, pp.140-149
    Description: Soil contamination due to atmospheric deposition of metals originating from smelters is a global environmental problem. A common problem associated with this contamination is the discrimination between anthropic and natural contributions to soil metal concentrations: In this context, we investigated the characteristics of soil contamination in the surrounding area of a world class smelter. We attempted to combine several approaches in order to identify sources of metals in soils and to examine contamination characteristics, such as pollution level, range, and spatial distribution. Soil samples were collected at 100 sites during a field survey and total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn were analyzed. We conducted a multivariate statistical analysis, and also examined the spatial distribution by 1) identifying the horizontal variation of metals according to particular wind directions and distance from the smelter and 2) drawing a distribution map by means of a GIS tool. As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in the soil were found to originate from smelter emissions, and As also originated from other sources such as abandoned mines and waste landfill. Among anthropogenic metals, the horizontal distribution of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn according to the downwind direction and distance from the smelter showed a typical feature of atmospheric deposition (regression model:  =   + αe ). Lithogenic Fe was used as an indicator, and it revealed the continuous input and accumulation of these four elements in the surrounding soils. Our approach was effective in clearly identifying the sources of metals and analyzing their contamination characteristics. We believe this study will provide useful information to future studies on soil pollution by metals around smelters.
    Keywords: Soil Contamination ; Smelter ; Metal ; Gis ; Atmospheric Deposition ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 May 2016, Vol.270, pp.10-20
    Description: Steelmaking slag (SS) is an industrial byproduct generated through metal refining processes. It has been applied as an agent to stabilize farmland soils contaminated both by arsenic and heavy metals in the Republic of Korea. However, the efficacy of this technique has not been established yet under anoxic conditions such as in the case of submerged rice paddy fields. Under anoxic conditions, As might be dissociated easily from solid surfaces where it is adsorbed reversibly. In this study, laboratory-scale column tests were conducted to artificially manipulate anoxic conditions in submerged paddy fields and we observed the release behavior of As and heavy metals, mainly cadmium (Cd). Limestone (LS) was also applied in the test for the purpose of comparison because it is usually applied as a common additive. The leachate samples were collected and chemical changes were monitored during the test period. Results suggest that anoxic conditions were developed during submersion, and that As or heavy metal fractions bound to ferrous (Fe)/manganese (Mn) oxides were easily dissociated. However, it was also shown that SS and LS significantly decreased the dissolution of Cd and As in the pore water; their removal rates in the SS-treated soil were 87% and 32%, respectively, of those in the control soil. On the other hand it appeared that SS was more effective than LS to stabilize Cd as well as As under submerged conditions. Therefore, SS might be an optimal stabilizing agent for dealing with As and other heavy metal contaminants in rice paddy soils that are periodically exposed to reducing environments.
    Keywords: Arsenic ; Column Test ; Limestone ; Rice Paddy ; Stabilization Method ; Steelmaking-Slag ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, November 2016, Vol.170, pp.157-166
    Description: Toxic metal pollution of agricultural soils caused by mining activities is a serious environmental problem in many parts of the world. To establish an appropriate remediation strategy to improve soil quality, it is essential to first monitor the metals in the soil to understand their distribution and behavioral characteristics. In this study, the concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in agricultural soil near abandoned gold mine sites in a region of South Korea (Chungyang county) were analyzed. A total of seven abandoned gold mines are located in this area. In November 2014, surface soil samples were collected from 200 locations across agricultural fields in the study site. Pollution sources were investigated using various statistical techniques, including multivariate statistical analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS), and the spatial distribution of metals and metalloids was determined. The results of cluster-, principal component-, and correlation analyses, as well as descriptive statistics, indicates that the metals can be divided into two groups. Cu, Ni, and Zn are derived from natural sources related to the parent materials in which the soil developed, whereas As, Cd, and Pb are shown to originate from abandoned gold mines. The results of this study clearly show that the movement and behavior of As, Cd, and Pb are governed mostly by the specific environment of the paddy field soil. Our results also show that these elements can be transported to the agricultural fields to up to 4 km or farther away from their source mines, and affect the surrounding environment. Accordingly, the most appropriate remediation strategy for paddy field soils that are polluted by toxic metals (and arsenic) due to mining activities would be one that takes into account their characteristics, in particular the fact that both oxidizing and reducing environments occur.
    Keywords: Abandoned Mine ; Distribution ; Farmland ; Metal(Loid)S ; Transport ; Paddy ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0375-6742
    E-ISSN: 1879-1689
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, October 2017, Vol.181, pp.129-137
    Description: In many parts of the world, metal(loid)s resulting from mining activities are causing significant environmental concern, in particular because they are contaminating agricultural lands. In this respect, a previous study in South Korea suggested that a specific agricultural practice, associated with the growing of rice in paddy fields, could contribute specifically to the geographic spread of metal(loid)s contamination away from mine sites. The purpose of the research described in this article was to confirm this hypothesis at a different site. Samples from the surface soil of agricultural lands were collected from 374 sites (267 paddy soils and 107 dry field soils). The concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from the samples were analyzed and descriptive statistics and multivariate statistical analysis were carried out to identify potential sources of these various elements. In addition, geographical information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze the interrelationship between the mining activities and the distribution of meta(loid)s in agricultural lands. The results clearly show that the transport and distribution of As and Pb originating from the abandoned mine are distinct depending on the agricultural practice that was adopted locally. The highest concentrations of As and Pb are in agricultural soils nearest the abandoned mine site (〈 1 km) because of climatic factors such as wind and precipitation that affect the direct mobilization of metal-bearing mine wastes. However, the distribution characteristics of As and Pb in the oxidizing environment of dry field soils in general suggest that the degree of pollution by these elements fell notably as the distance from the abandoned mine increased. In the alternatingly oxidizing and reducing environment of paddy soils, by contrast, the distribution of As and Pb is noticeably different from those of the dry field soils. Arsenic in particular is widely distributed across the study area with a high level of pollution regardless of the distance from the abandoned mine. These results confirm the hypothesis that the transport characteristics of metal(loid)s initially mobilized from an abandoned mine site into the paddy soils are predominantly governed by the specific submerged environment of rice paddy soils and these specific environments impact a wider area than climatic factors.
    Keywords: Abandoned Mine ; Metal(Loid) ; Arsenic ; Soil Contamination ; Paddy ; Gis ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0375-6742
    E-ISSN: 1879-1689
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: South Korea Metal and Mining, August 17, 2017, p.6(1)
    Description: In many parts of the world, metal(loid)s resulting from mining activities are causing significant environmental concern, in particular because they are contaminating agricultural lands. In this respect, a previous study in South Korea suggested that a specific agricultural practice, associated with the growing of rice in paddy fields, could contribute specifically to the geographic spread of metal(loid)s contamination away from mine sites. The purpose of the research described in this article was to confirm this hypothesis at a different site. Samples from the surface soil of agricultural lands were collected from 374 sites (267 paddy soils and 107 dry field soils). The concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from the samples were analyzed and descriptive statistics and multivariate statistical analysis were carried out to identify potential sources of these various elements. In addition, geographical information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze the interrelationship between the mining activities and the distribution of meta(loid)s in agricultural lands. The results clearly show that the transport and distribution of As and Pb originating from the abandoned mine are distinct depending on the agricultural practice that was adopted locally. The highest concentrations of As and Pb are in agricultural soils nearest the abandoned mine site (〈 1 km) because of climatic factors such as wind and precipitation that affect the direct mobilization of metal-bearing mine wastes. However, the distribution characteristics of As and Pb in the oxidizing environment of dry field soils in general suggest that the degree of pollution by these elements fell notably as the distance from the abandoned mine increased. In the alternatingly oxidizing and reducing environment of paddy soils, by contrast, the distribution of As and Pb is noticeably different from those of the dry field soils. Arsenic in particular is widely distributed across the study area with a high level of pollution regardless of the distance from the abandoned mine. These results confirm the hypothesis that the transport characteristics of metal(loid)s initially mobilized from an abandoned mine site into the paddy soils are predominantly governed by the specific submerged environment of rice paddy soils and these specific environments impact a wider area than climatic factors.
    Keywords: Mining Industry – Analysis ; Agricultural Land – Analysis ; Gold Mining – Analysis
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: South Korea Metal and Mining, August 25, 2017, p.7(1)
    Description: In many parts of the world, metal(loid)s resulting from mining activities are causing significant environmental concern, in particular because they are contaminating agricultural lands. In this respect, a previous study in South Korea suggested that a specific agricultural practice, associated with the growing of rice in paddy fields, could contribute specifically to the geographic spread of metal(loid)s contamination away from mine sites. The purpose of the research described in this article was to confirm this hypothesis at a different site. Samples from the surface soil of agricultural lands were collected from 374 sites (267 paddy soils and 107 dry field soils). The concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from the samples were analyzed and descriptive statistics and multivariate statistical analysis were carried out to identify potential sources of these various elements. In addition, geographical information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze the interrelationship between the mining activities and the distribution of meta(loid)s in agricultural lands. The results clearly show that the transport and distribution of As and Pb originating from the abandoned mine are distinct depending on the agricultural practice that was adopted locally. The highest concentrations of As and Pb are in agricultural soils nearest the abandoned mine site (〈 1 km) because of climatic factors such as wind and precipitation that affect the direct mobilization of metal-bearing mine wastes. However, the distribution characteristics of As and Pb in the oxidizing environment of dry field soils in general suggest that the degree of pollution by these elements fell notably as the distance from the abandoned mine increased. In the alternatingly oxidizing and reducing environment of paddy soils, by contrast, the distribution of As and Pb is noticeably different from those of the dry field soils. Arsenic in particular is widely distributed across the study area with a high level of pollution regardless of the distance from the abandoned mine. These results confirm the hypothesis that the transport characteristics of metal(loid)s initially mobilized from an abandoned mine site into the paddy soils are predominantly governed by the specific submerged environment of rice paddy soils and these specific environments impact a wider area than climatic factors.
    Keywords: Mining Industry – Analysis ; Agricultural Land – Analysis ; Gold Mining – Analysis
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: Korean
    In: 韓國地盤工學會論文集 = Journal of the Korean geotechnical society, 2002, Vol.18(6), pp.25-32
    Description: 전통적인 흙의 입도분포 곡선상에서 흙의 구성 성분에 따른 프랙탈 차원의 변화에 대해서 Wu등(1993)과Bittelli 등(1999)의 연구결과를 중심으로 Buchan 등(1993)의 실험결과를 이용하여 고찰하였다. 자료분석시에는 실트와 모래의 경계값의 변화에 따른 프랙탈 차원의 변화를 알아보기 위하여 20$\mu{m}$, 63$\mu{m}$ 그리고 125$\mu{m}$에 대한 프랙탈 차원을 산정하여 전체 범위에서 구한 프랙탈 차원과 비교하였다. 분석결과에서는 전통적인 입도분포곡선상에서 프랙탈 차원의 산정은 가능한 것으로 나타났으며, 실트와 모래성분의 경계값은 Wu 등(1993)이 제시한 것 보다 Bittelli 등(1999)이 제시한 경계값이 더 적절함을 알 수 있었다. 또한 Bittelli 등(1999)이 제시한 실험식을 이용해서 실트영역의 프랙탈 차원을 비교적 정확하게 산정할 수 있었다. The fractal dimension that was evaluated with soil components from the traditional particle-size distribution(PSD) curve was analyzed using the results of Wu et al.(1993) and Bittelli et al.(1999). In order to find the change of the variation of fractal dimension with the upper and lower limit, three limit values(200$\mu{m}$, 63$\mu{m}$, and 125$\mu{m}$) were chosen, and these results of fractal dimension analysis were compared to the result that was evaluated in the whole range of the soils. The results showed that it is possible to evaluate fractal dimension from the traditional PSD curve with the soil contents, and it showed that Bittelli et at.(1999)'s upper and lower limit value was more reasonable than Wu et al.(1993). Equations that were presented by Bittelli et at.(1999) also showed a good agreement with the analytical results in the silt domain.
    Keywords: Fractal Dimension ; Upper And Lower Cut-Off Value ; Particle-Size Distribution ; Soil Contents ; Self-Similarity
    ISSN: 1225-9632
    Source: KISTI (Korea Science Collection)
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