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  • ACM Digital Library  (8)
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  • 1
    Conference Proceeding
    Conference Proceeding
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the 12th ACM SIGMETRICS/PERFORMANCE joint international conference on measurement and modeling of computer systems, 11 June 2012, pp.379-380
    Description: Regular expression matching as the core packet inspection engine of network systems has long been striving to be both fast in matching speed (like DFA) and scalable in storage space (like NFA). Recently, ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) has been investigated as a promising way out, by implementing DFA using TCAM for regular express matching. In this paper, we present the first method for implementing NFA using TCAM. Through proper TCAM encoding, our method matches each input byte with one single TCAM lookup --- operating at precisely the same speed as DFA, while using a number of TCAM entries that can be close to NFA size. These properties make our method an important step along a new path --- TCAM-based NFA implementation --- towards the long-standing goal of fast and scalable regular expression matching.
    Keywords: Nfa ; Tcam ; Regular Expression Matching ; Engineering
    ISBN: 9781450310970
    ISBN: 1450310974
    ISSN: 01635999
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, August 2017, Vol.25(4), pp.2281-2294
    Description: Optical data center networks (DCNs) are becoming increasingly attractive due to their technological strengths compared with the traditional electrical networks. However, existing optical DCNs are either hard to scale, vulnerable to single point of failure, or provide limited network bisection bandwidth for many practical data center workloads. To this end, we present WaveCube, a scalable, fault-tolerant, high-performance optical DCN architecture. To scale, WaveCube removes MEMS,〈sup〉1〈/sup〉 a potential bottleneck, from its design. WaveCube is fault-tolerant, since it does not have single point of failure and there are multiple node-disjoint parallel paths between any pair of top-of-rack switches. WaveCube delivers high performance by exploiting multi-pathing and dynamic link bandwidth along the path. For example, our evaluation results show that, in terms of network bisection bandwidth, WaveCube outperforms prior optical DCNs by up to 400% and is 70%-85% of the ideal non-blocking network (ı.e., theoretical upper bound) under both realistic and synthetic traffic patterns. WaveCube's performance degrades gracefully under failures-it drops 20% even with 20% links cut. WaveCube also holds promise in practice-its wiring complexity is orders of magnitude lower than Fattree, BCube, and c-Through at scale, and its power consumption is 35% of them.
    Keywords: Optical Switches ; Bandwidth ; Optical Fiber Networks ; Micromechanical Devices ; Fault Tolerance ; Fault Tolerant Systems ; Ports (Computers) ; Data Center Networks ; Network Structure ; Optical Networking ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1063-6692
    E-ISSN: 1558-2566
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  • 3
    Conference Proceeding
    Conference Proceeding
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on information processing in sensor networks, 24 April 2005, pp.3-es
    Description: Maximizing system lifetime in battery-powered wireless sensor networks with power aware topology control protocols and routing protocols has received intensive research. In the past, this problem has been mostly studied from the indirect perspective of energy conservation. Although this leads to solutions that help extend network lifetime, energy conservation is not the same problem as network lifetime maximization. Some researchers have formally studied network lifetime maximization problems, based on the assumption that energy is only consumed by packet transmission. However, it is well known that in many cases energy is significantly consumed during idle periods and overhearing. In this paper, we try to present a survey and formal analysis of a variety of network lifetime maximization problems in different energy consumption models. In particular, we identify different energy consumption models, define a variety of fundamental network lifetime maximization problems in individual energy consumption models, and formally analyze their complexities. Polynomial time algorithms are presented for tractable problems, and NP-hardness proofs are presented for intractable problems.
    ISBN: 0780392027
    ISBN: 9780780392021
    Source: ACM Digital Library (Association for Computing Machinery)
    Source: KESLI (ACM Digital Library)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM SIGPLAN symposium on principles and practice of parallel programming, 25 February 2012, pp.129-140
    Description: Regular expression pattern matching is the foundation and core engine of many network functions, such as network intrusion detection, worm detection, traffic analysis, web applications and so on. DFA-based solutions suffer exponentially exploding state space and cannot be remedied without sacrificing matching speed. Given this scalability problem of DFA-based methods, there has been increasing interest in NFA-based methods for memory efficient regular expression matching. To achieve high matching speed using NFA, it requires potentially massive parallel processing, and hence represents an ideal programming task on Graphic Processor Unit (GPU). Based on in-depth understanding of NFA properties as well as GPU architecture, we propose effective methods for fitting NFAs into GPU architecture through proper data structure and parallel programming design, so that GPU's parallel processing power can be better utilized to achieve high speed regular expression matching. Experiment results demonstrate that, compared with the existing GPU-based NFA implementation method [9], our proposed methods can boost matching speed by 29~46 times, consistently yielding above 10Gbps matching speed on NVIDIA GTX-460 GPU. Meanwhile, our design only needs a small amount of memory space, growing exponentially more slowly than DFA size. These results make our design an effective solution for memory efficient high speed regular expression matching, and clearly demonstrate the power and potential of GPU as a platform for memory efficient high speed regular expression matching.
    Keywords: Cuda ; Gpu ; Nfa ; Deep Packet Inspection ; Pattern Matching ; Regular Expression Matching ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9781450311601
    ISBN: 1450311601
    Source: ACM Digital Library (Association for Computing Machinery)
    Source: KESLI (ACM Digital Library)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the 2007 ACM SIGMETRICS international conference on measurement and modeling of computer systems, 12 June 2007, pp.253-264
    Description: Packet classification is the foundation of many Internet functions such as QoS and security. A long thread of research has proposed efficient software-based solutions to this problem. Such software solutions are attractive because they require cheap memory systems for implementation, thus bringing down the overall cost of the system. In contrast, hardware-based solutions use more expensive memory systems, e.g., TCAMs, but are often preferred by router vendors for their faster classification speeds. The goal of this paper is to find a "best-of-both-worlds" solution -- a solution that incurs the cost of a software-based system and has the speed of a hardware-based one. Our proposed solution, called 〈i〉smart rule cache〈/i〉 achieves this goal by using minimal hardware -- a few additional registers -- to cache 〈i〉evolving〈/i〉 rules which preserve classification semantics, and additional logic to match incoming packets to these rules. Using real traffic traces and real rule sets from a tier-1 ISP, we show such a setup is sufficient to achieve very high hit ratios for fast classification in hardware. Cache miss ratios are 2 ∼ 4 orders of magnitude lower than flow cache schemes. Given its low cost and good performance, we believe our solution may create significant impact on current industry practice.
    Keywords: Packet Classification ; Rule Cache ; Rule Evolution ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9781595936394
    ISBN: 1595936394
    Source: ACM Digital Library (Association for Computing Machinery)
    Source: KESLI (ACM Digital Library)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM international conference on mobile computing and networking, 09 September 2007, pp.306-309
    Description: Network coding is seen as a promising technique to improve network throughput. In this paper, we study two important problems in localized network coding in wireless networks, which only requires each node to know about and coordinate with one-hop neighbors. In particular, we first establish a condition that is both necessary and sufficient for useful coding to be possible. We show this condition is much weaker than expected, and hence allows a variety of coding schemes to suit different network conditions and application preferences. Based on the understanding we establish, we are able to design a robust coding technique called 〈i〉loop coding〈/i〉 that can improve network throughput and TCP throughput simultaneously.
    Keywords: Tcp ; Network Coding ; Throughput ; Wireless Networks ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9781595936813
    ISBN: 1595936815
    Source: ACM Digital Library (Association for Computing Machinery)
    Source: KESLI (ACM Digital Library)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the joint international conference on measurement and modeling of computer systems, 26 June 2006, pp.311-322
    Description: Serving as the core component in many packet forwarding, differentiating and filtering schemes, packet classification continues to grow its importance in today's IP networks. Currently, most vendors use Ternary CAMs (TCAMs) for packet classification. TCAMs usually use brute-force parallel hardware to simultaneously check for all rules. One of the fundamental problems of TCAMs is that TCAMs suffer from range specifications because rules with range specifications need to be translated into multiple TCAM entries. Hence, the cost of packet classification will increase substantially as the number of TCAM entries grows. As a result, network operators hesitate to configure packet classifiers using range specifications. In this paper, we optimize packet classifier configurations by identifying semantically equivalent rule sets that lead to reduced number of TCAM entries when represented in hardware. In particular, we develop a number of effective techniques, which include: trimming rules, expanding rules, merging rules, and adding rules. Compared with previously proposed techniques which typically require modifications to the packet processor hardware, our scheme does not require any hardware modification, which is highly preferred by ISPs. Moreover, our scheme is complementary to previous techniques in that those techniques can be applied on the rule sets optimized by our scheme. We evaluate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed techniques using extensive experiments based on both real packet classifiers managed by a large tier-1 ISP and synthetic data generated randomly. We observe significant reduction on the number of TCAM entries that are needed to represent the optimized packet classifier configurations.
    Keywords: Packet Classification ; Semantic Equivalence ; Ternary Cam ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 1595933190
    ISBN: 9781595933195
    ISSN: 01635999
    Source: ACM Digital Library (Association for Computing Machinery)
    Source: KESLI (ACM Digital Library)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking and computing, 25 May 2005, pp.449-459
    Description: We address the problem of energy-efficient reliable wireless communication in the presence of unreliable or lossy wireless link layers in multi-hop wireless networks. Prior work [1] has provided an optimal energy efficient solution to this problem for the case where link layers implement perfect reliability. However, a more common scenario --- a link layer that is not perfectly reliable, was left as an open problem. In this paper we first present two centralized algorithms, BAMER and GAMER, that optimally solve the minimum energy reliable communication problem in presence of unreliable links. Subsequently we present a distributed algorithm, DAMER, that approximates the performance of the centralized algorithm and leads to significant performance improvement over existing single-path or multi-path based techniques.
    Keywords: End-to-End Reliable Communication ; Energy Efficiency ; Multi-Path ; Routing ; Wireless Networks ; Engineering
    ISBN: 1595930043
    ISBN: 9781595930040
    Source: ACM Digital Library (Association for Computing Machinery)
    Source: KESLI (ACM Digital Library)
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