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  • AGRIS (United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization)  (23)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nutrition and Cancer, 01 August 2011, Vol.63(6), pp.908-915
    Description: We investigated the prognostic value of BMI (body mass index) in Asian patients with RCC (renal cell carcinoma). We evaluated 170 Asian patients who underwent surgery for localized RCC (pathologic T1-4 tumors in the absence of nodal or distant metastases) between 1996 and 2004 at our institution....
    Keywords: Medicine ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition
    ISSN: 0163-5581
    E-ISSN: 1532-7914
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Conservation Genetics, 2011, Vol.12(2), pp.423-431
    Description: We investigated the phylogeography and subspecies classification of the ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) by assessing patterns of variation in mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA-CR) sequence and across fourteen nuclear microsatellite loci. The current consensus taxonomy of S. camelus names five subspecies based on morphology, geographic range, mtDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism and mtDNA-CR sequence analysis: S. c. camelus , S. c. syriacus , S. c. molybdephanes , S. c. massaicus and S. c. australis . We expanded a previous mtDNA dataset from 18 individual mtDNA-CR sequences to 123 sequences, including sequences from all five subspecies. Importantly, these additional sequences included 43 novel sequences of the red-necked ostrich, S. c. camelus , obtained from birds from Niger. Phylogeographic reconstruction of these sequences matches previous results, with three well-supported clades containing S. c. camelus/syriacus , S. c. molybdophanes , and S. c. massaicus/australis , respectively. The 14 microsatellite loci assessed for 119 individuals of four subspecies (all but S. c. syriacus ) showed considerable variation, with an average of 13.4 (±2.0) alleles per locus and a mean observed heterozygosity of 55.7 (±5.3)%. These data revealed high levels of variation within most subspecies, and a structure analysis revealed strong separation between each of the four subspecies. The level of divergence across both marker types suggests the consideration of separate species status for S. c. molybdophanes , and perhaps also for S. c. camelus/syriacus . Both the mtDNA-CR and microsatellite analyzes also suggest that there has been no recent hybridization between the subspecies. These findings are of importance for management of the highly endangered red-necked subspecies ( S. c. camelus ) and may warrant its placement onto the IUCN red list of threatened animals.
    Keywords: Struthio camelus ; Ostrich ; Africa ; Mitochondrial DNA control region ; Phylogeography ; Microsatellites
    ISSN: 1566-0621
    E-ISSN: 1572-9737
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 29 October 2013, Vol.110(44), pp.17921-6
    Description: Chromatin-based functional genomic analyses and genomewide association studies (GWASs) together implicate enhancers as critical elements influencing gene expression and risk for common diseases. Here, we performed systematic chromatin and transcriptome profiling in human pancreatic islets. Integrated analysis of islet data with those from nine cell types identified specific and significant enrichment of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative trait GWAS variants in islet enhancers. Our integrated chromatin maps reveal that most enhancers are short (median = 0.8 kb). Each cell type also contains a substantial number of more extended (≥ 3 kb) enhancers. Interestingly, these stretch enhancers are often tissue-specific and overlap locus control regions, suggesting that they are important chromatin regulatory beacons. Indeed, we show that (i) tissue specificity of enhancers and nearby gene expression increase with enhancer length; (ii) neighborhoods containing stretch enhancers are enriched for important cell type-specific genes; and (iii) GWAS variants associated with traits relevant to a particular cell type are more enriched in stretch enhancers compared with short enhancers. Reporter constructs containing stretch enhancer sequences exhibited tissue-specific activity in cell culture experiments and in transgenic mice. These results suggest that stretch enhancers are critical chromatin elements for coordinating cell type-specific regulatory programs and that sequence variation in stretch enhancers affects risk of major common human diseases.
    Keywords: Cell Differentiation -- Physiology ; Chromatin -- Physiology ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 -- Physiopathology ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic -- Genetics ; Epigenomics -- Methods ; Gene Expression Regulation -- Physiology ; Insulin-Secreting Cells -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cell, 01 August 2013, Vol.154(3), pp.541-555
    Description: Acquired chromosomal instability and copy number alterations are hallmarks of cancer. Enzymes capable of promoting site-specific copy number changes have yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that H3K9/36me3 lysine demethylase KDM4A/JMJD2A overexpression leads to localized copy gain of 1q12, 1q21, and Xq13.1 without global chromosome instability. KDM4A-amplified tumors have increased copy gains for these same regions. 1q12h copy gain occurs within a single cell cycle, requires S phase, and is not stable but is regenerated each cell division. Sites with increased copy number are rereplicated and have increased KDM4A, MCM, and DNA polymerase occupancy. Suv39h1/KMT1A or HP1γ overexpression suppresses the copy gain, whereas H3K9/K36 methylation interference promotes gain. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of a chromatin modifier results in site-specific copy gains. This begins to establish how copy number changes could originate during tumorigenesis and demonstrates that transient overexpression of specific chromatin modulators could promote these events. Increased expression of the KDM4A demethylase leads to site-specific copy gain during tumorigenesis without causing global chromosomal instability, suggesting that overexpression of specific chromatin modulators can promote copy number variation in cancer.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0092-8674
    E-ISSN: 1097-4172
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, January 2011, Vol.39(Database issue), pp.D58-65
    Description: UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) is a full-text article database that extends the functionality of the original PubMed Central (PMC) repository. The UKPMC project was launched as the first 'mirror' site to PMC, which in analogy to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, aims to provide international preservation of the open and free-access biomedical literature. UKPMC (http://ukpmc.ac.uk) has undergone considerable development since its inception in 2007 and now includes both a UKPMC and PubMed search, as well as access to other records such as Agricola, Patents and recent biomedical theses. UKPMC also differs from PubMed/PMC in that the full text and abstract information can be searched in an integrated manner from one input box. Furthermore, UKPMC contains 'Cited By' information as an alternative way to navigate the literature and has incorporated text-mining approaches to semantically enrich content and integrate it with related database resources. Finally, UKPMC also offers added-value services (UKPMC+) that enable grantees to deposit manuscripts, link papers to grants, publish online portfolios and view citation information on their papers. Here we describe UKPMC and clarify the relationship between PMC and UKPMC, providing historical context and future directions, 10 years on from when PMC was first launched.
    Keywords: Pubmed
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, August 2008, Vol.88(2), pp.305-14
    Description: Earlier studies have suggested that infant feeding may program long-term changes in cholesterol metabolism. We aimed to examine whether breastfeeding is associated with lower blood cholesterol concentrations in adulthood. The study consisted of a systematic review of published observational studies relating initial infant feeding status to blood cholesterol concentrations in adulthood (ie, aged 〉16 y). Data were available from 17 studies (17 498 subjects; 12 890 breastfed, 4608 formula-fed). Mean differences in total cholesterol concentrations (breastfed minus formula-fed) were pooled by using fixed-effect models. Effects of adjustment (for age at outcome, socioeconomic position, body mass index, and smoking status) and exclusion (of nonexclusive breast feeders) were examined. Mean total blood cholesterol was lower (P = 0.037) among those ever breastfed than among those fed formula milk (mean difference: -0.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.08, 0.00 mmol/L). The difference in cholesterol between infant feeding groups was larger (P = 0.005) and more consistent in 7 studies that analyzed "exclusive" feeding patterns (-0.15 mmol/L; -0.23, -0.06 mmol/L) than in 10 studies that analyzed nonexclusive feeding patterns (-0.01 mmol/L; -0.06, 0.03 mmol/L). Adjustment for potential confounders including socioeconomic position, body mass index, and smoking status in adult life had minimal effect on these estimates. Initial breastfeeding (particularly when exclusive) may be associated with lower blood cholesterol concentrations in later life. Moves to reduce the cholesterol content of formula feeds below those of breast milk should be treated with caution.
    Keywords: Breast Feeding ; Infant Formula ; Milk, Human ; Cholesterol -- Metabolism ; Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00029165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: lancet, 2013, Vol.380(9859), pp.2197-2223
    Description: BACKGROUND: Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time. METHODS: We calculated DALYs as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were calculated for 291 causes, 20 age groups, both sexes, and for 187 countries, and aggregated to regional and global estimates of disease burden for three points in time with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new disability weights for each health state. Neither YLLs nor YLDs were age-weighted or discounted. Uncertainty around cause-specific DALYs was calculated incorporating uncertainty in levels of all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, prevalence, and disability weights. FINDINGS: Global DALYs remained stable from 1990 (2·503 billion) to 2010 (2·490 billion). Crude DALYs per 1000 decreased by 23% (472 per 1000 to 361 per 1000). An important shift has occurred in DALY composition with the contribution of deaths and disability among children (younger than 5 years of age) declining from 41% of global DALYs in 1990 to 25% in 2010. YLLs typically account for about half of disease burden in more developed regions (high-income Asia Pacific, western Europe, high-income North America, and Australasia), rising to over 80% of DALYs in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990, 47% of DALYs worldwide were from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, 43% from non-communicable diseases, and 10% from injuries. By 2010, this had shifted to 35%, 54%, and 11%, respectively. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of DALYs worldwide in 2010 (up from fourth rank in 1990, increasing by 29%), followed by lower respiratory infections (top rank in 1990; 44% decline in DALYs), stroke (fifth in 1990; 19% increase), diarrhoeal diseases (second in 1990; 51% decrease), and HIV/AIDS (33rd in 1990; 351% increase). Major depressive disorder increased from 15th to 11th rank (37% increase) and road injury from 12th to 10th rank (34% increase). Substantial heterogeneity exists in rankings of leading causes of disease burden among regions. INTERPRETATION: Global disease burden has continued to shift away from communicable to non-communicable diseases and from premature death to years lived with disability. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of understanding local burden of disease and setting goals and targets for the post-2015 agenda taking such patterns into account. Because of improved definitions, methods, and data, these results for 1990 and 2010 supersede all previously published Global Burden of Disease results. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ; p. 2197-2223.
    Keywords: Musculoskeletal Diseases ; Myocardial Ischemia ; Death ; Diabetes ; Children ; Disability Weights ; Complications (Disease) ; Disability-Adjusted Life Year ; Stroke ; Behavior Disorders ; Mortality ; Diet-Related Diseases ; Longevity ; Uncertainty
    ISSN: 0140-6736
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 15 December 2012, Vol.380(9859), pp.2163-2196
    Description: Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither effort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs). Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis. Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350 000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient −0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Rates of YLDs per 100 000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Effective and affordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2011, Vol.151(1), pp.87-100
    Description: ▶ 90% cumulative annual footprint varied from 1.1 to 5.0 km across FCRN sites. ▶ The annual sensor location bias (SLB) is less than 5% for most FCRN sites. ▶ The annual SLB decreases with increasing size of annual footprint climatologies. ▶ Two-third of FCRN towers represent a large extent of area (0.3–10 km ). ▶ The seasonal differences in monthly SLB are about 1–4% for most FCRN sites. We describe an approach for evaluating the representativeness of eddy covariance flux measurements and assessing sensor location bias (SLB) based on footprint modelling and remote sensing. This approach was applied to the 12 main sites of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network (FCRN)/Canadian Carbon Program (CCP) located along an east-west continental-scale transect, covering grassland, forest, and wetland biomes. For each site, monthly and annual footprint climatologies (i.e. monthly or annual cumulative footprints) were calculated using the Simple Analytical Footprint model on Eulerian coordinates (SAFE). The resulting footprint climatologies were then overlaid on to images of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) derived from LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery, which were used as surrogates of land surface fluxes to estimate SLB. Results indicate that (i) the sizes of annual footprint climatology increased exponentially with increasing cumulative footprint percentages and, for a given percentage of footprint climatology, the footprint areas were significantly different among the sites. Typically, the 90% annual footprint climatology areas varied from 1.1 km to 5.0 km ; (ii) using either NDVI or EVI as the flux surrogate, the SLB was less than 5% for most sites with respect to the reference area of interest ( ) at 90% annual footprint climatology (scenario A) and a circular area with radius of 1 km centred at the individual tower (scenario B), with several exceptions; (iii) the SLB decreased with increasing size of footprint climatology for all sites for both scenarios A and B; (iv) out of 12, eight flux towers represented most of the ecosystem surrounding the towers for an area of 0.3 km up to 10 km with a satisfactorily low bias of 〈5%, whereas four towers represented areas ranging from only 0.75 to 4 km ; and (v) the seasonal differences in monthly SLB using NDVI as a flux surrogate were about 1–4% for most sites for both scenarios A and B.
    Keywords: Safe Footprint Model ; Ndvi ; Evi ; Footprint Climatology ; Sensor Location Bias ; Eddy Covariance ; Fluxnet ; Carbon Flux ; Net Ecosystem Exchange ; Agriculture ; Meteorology & Climatology
    ISSN: 0168-1923
    E-ISSN: 1873-2240
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 10 December 2010, Vol.330(6010), pp.1503-9
    Description: Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to extinction each year. However, this overall pattern conceals the impact of conservation successes, and we show that the rate of deterioration would have been at least one-fifth again as much in the absence of these. Nonetheless, current conservation efforts remain insufficient to offset the main drivers of biodiversity loss in these groups: agricultural expansion, logging, overexploitation, and invasive alien species.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; Ecosystem ; Vertebrates
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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