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  • AGRIS (United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization)  (752)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: BBA - Bioenergetics, 2011, Vol.1807(9), pp.1206-1213
    Description: Hydrogen sulfide is enzymatically produced in mammalian tissues and functions as a gaseous transmitter. However, H S is also highly toxic as it inhibits mitochondrial respiration at the level of cytochrome c oxidase, which additionally is involved in sulfide oxidation. The accumulation of toxic sulfide levels contributes to the pathology of some diseases. This paper demonstrates that sulfide toxicity can be modified, and dehydroascorbic acid functions as an effector in this process. It significantly reduces the inhibitory effect of sulfide on cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in higher rates of respiration and sulfide oxidation in rat mitochondria. After the addition of dehydroascorbic acid mitochondria maintained more than 50% of the oxygen consumption and ATP production rates with different substrates in the presence of high concentrations of sulfide that would normally lead to complete inhibition. Dehydroascorbic acid significantly increased the sulfide concentration necessary to cause half maximal inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and thus completely prevented inhibition at low, physiological sulfide concentrations. In addition, sulfide oxidation was stimulated and led to ATP production even at high concentrations. The decrease in sulfide toxicity was more pronounced when analyzing supermolecular functional units of the respiratory chain than in isolated cytochrome c oxidase activity. Furthermore, the protective effect of dehydroascorbic acid at high sulfide concentrations was completely abolished by quantitative solubilization of mitochondrial membrane proteins with dodeclymaltoside. These results suggest that binding of cytochrome c oxidase to other proteins probably within respiratory chain supercomplexes is involved in the modulation of sulfide oxidation and toxicity by dehydroascorbic acid. ► Dehydroascorbic acid decreases sulfide toxicity in rat mitochondria. ► Dehydroascorbic acid increases rates of sulfide oxidation. ► Inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by sulfide can be modulated. ► The protective effect requires supermolecular association of cytochrome c oxidase.
    Keywords: Ascorbic Acid ; Enzyme Inhibitor ; Mitochondrial Metabolism ; Respiratory Chain ; Sulfide ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0005-2728
    E-ISSN: 1879-2650
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2010, Vol.397(5), pp.1787-1796
    Description: Fish are a common cause of allergic reactions associated with food consumption, with parvalbumin being the major allergenic protein. Some fish-hypersensitive patients tolerate some fish species while being allergic to others. Reliable detection methods for allergenic fish species in foods are necessary to ensure compliance with food allergen labeling guidelines to protect fish-allergic consumers. The objective of this project was to develop a multi-analyte detection method for the presence of fish in food. Therefore, conserved parvalbumin exon sequences were utilized for the design of universal PCR primers amplifying intron DNA and small regions of exons flanking the enclosed intron from even very distantly related fish species. An assay for the identification of eight fish species was developed using xMAP™ technology with probes targeting species-specific parvalbumin intron regions. Additionally, a universal fish probe was designed targeting a highly conserved exon region located between the intron and the reverse primer region. The universal fish assay showed no cross-reactivity with other species, such as beef, pork, lamb, chicken, turkey, and shrimp. Importantly, with the exception of one notable case with fish in the same subfamily, species-specific detection showed no cross-reactivity with other fish species. Limits of detection for these eight species were experimentally estimated to range from 0.01% to 0.04%, with potential to increase the detection sensitivity. This report introduces a newly developed method for the multiplex identification of at least eight allergenic fish species in food, which could conceivably be extended to detect up to 100 species simultaneously in one sample. Figure Schematic overview of the xMAP™ assay. Amine-modified capture oligonucleotides were covalently coupled to color-coded MagPlex™-C magnetic carboxylated microspheres (Luminex Corporation, TX, USA) using a carbodiimide coupling method described by Fulton et al. [25]. Parvalbuminencoding DNA was amplified with real-time PCR, whereas one of the primers was labeled with biotin. Biotin-labeled DNA strands were hybridized to their corresponding capture oligonucleotides. The fluorophor streptavidin–phycoerythrin (SAPE) was added and bound to the biotin molecules. Reaction tubes containing the magnetic microspheres were put on a magnet, unbound oligonucleotides and SAPE was removed by washing. The reaction mixture was analyzed on the BioPlex 200 analyzer (BioRad, CA, USA). Microspheres were interrogated individually in a rapidly flowing fluid stream as they passed by two separate lasers. A red diode laser excited two fluorochromes contained within the colorcoded microspheres and a green laser excited the reporter fluorochrome (SAPE) bound to the microsphere surface. High-speed digital signal processing classified the microsphere based on its spectral address and quantified the reaction on the surface
    Keywords: Fish allergy ; Parvalbumin ; PCR ; Universal primer ; xMAP
    ISSN: 1618-2642
    E-ISSN: 1618-2650
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 21 June 2010, Vol.49(27), pp.4540-4541
    Description: : A novel application of Raman microscopy takes advantage of a spectral window to map the uptake and distribution of metal‐carbonyl‐based drugs in single cells. The approach provides information on cell structure and molecular structure simultaneously and may have significant impact on drug screening and on the analysis of cellular processes in general.
    Keywords: Antitumor Agents ; Carbonyl Ligands ; Cells ; Molecular Imaging ; Raman Microscopy
    ISSN: 1433-7851
    E-ISSN: 1521-3773
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science, 2010, Vol.327(5962), pp.198-201
    Description: The liver-expressed microRNA-122 (miR-122) is essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA accumulation in cultured liver cells, but its potential as a target for antiviral intervention has not been assessed. We found that treatment of chronically infected chimpanzees with a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide (SPC3649) complementary to miR-122 leads to long-lasting suppression of HCV viremia, with no evidence of viral resistance or side effects in the treated animals. Furthermore, transcriptome and histological analyses of liver biopsies demonstrated derepression of target mRNAs with miR-122 seed sites, down-regulation of interferon-regulated genes, and improvement of HCV-induced liver pathology. The prolonged virological response to SPC3649 treatment without HCV rebound holds promise of a new antiviral therapy with a high barrier to resistance. ; Includes references ; p. 198-201.
    Keywords: Antiviral Agents -- Usage ; Antiviral Agents -- Health Aspects ; Gene Silencing -- Research ; Hepatitis C -- Risk Factors ; Hepatitis C -- Genetic Aspects ; Hepatitis C -- Drug Therapy ; Hepatitis C -- Research;
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: new phytologist, 2012, Vol.194(2), pp.402-415
    Description: • During harvest, fleshy berry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) were wounded at their stem scar. Within 3 d, this wound was rapidly sealed by a process covering the wound site with a membranous layer which effectively protects the tomato fruit from excessive water loss, nutrient elution and the entry of pathogens. • Chemical analysis of the de novo synthesized stem scar tissue revealed the presence of aromatic and aliphatic components characteristic of the biopolyester suberin. • Gene expression patterns associated with suberization were identified at the stem scar region. Changes in the relative abundance of different transcripts suggested a potential involvement of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in the wound‐healing processes. • The amount of ABA present in the stem scar tissue showed a significantly increased level during wound healing, whereas ABA‐deficient mutants notabilis, flacca and sitiens were largely devoid of this rise in ABA levels. The mutant fruits showed a retarded and less efficient suberization response at the stem scar wound, whereas the rate and strength of this response were positively correlated with ABA content. These results clearly indicate in vivo the involvement of ABA in the suberization‐based wound‐healing processes at the stem scar tissue of tomato fruits. ; p. 402-415.
    Keywords: Tissue Repair ; Chemical Analysis ; Abscisic Acid ; Fruits ; Gene Expression ; Correlation ; Suberization ; Pathogens ; Tomatoes ; Solanum Lycopersicum ; Suberin ; Mutants
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 14698137
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Chemical engineering science, 2013, Vol.99, pp.203-214
    Description: The application of attainable regions (AR) to batch reactor configurations is presented. In this work, we consider the problem of constructing an equivalent batch structure given an AR generated for a continuous system from a specified feed composition and associated kinetics. The authors show that by the appropriate transformation, results developed from a continuous AR may be used to form a related batch structure, and thus improvement of batch reactor structures is also possible by use of the attainable region. ; p. 203-214.
    Keywords: Chemical Engineering ; Reaction Kinetics ; Methodology
    ISSN: 0009-2509
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, January 2010, Vol.43(1), pp.77-87
    Description: OBJECTIVE:: Body checking may be an important behavioral consequence of body image disturbance. Despite the importance of body checking, few measurements of this construct exist, particularly for males. This study describes the development and validation of the Male Body Checking Questionnaire (MBCQ). METHOD:: Convergent and divergent validity, factor structure, and reliability were tested in three separate samples of men and women. RESULTS:: Factor analyses suggested a reliable four-factor structure with evidence of a higher order global checking factor for men, but not women. The MBCQ demonstrated good concurrent and divergent validity. Short-term test-retest reliability was good with high internal consistency across time. DISCUSSION:: Interpretation of psychometrics and recommendations for subsequent research are discussed. The MBCQ is likely to be an appropriate tool for investigating body image-based pathology in males. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2010 ; Includes references ; p. 77-87.
    Keywords: Male Body Checking Questionnaire ; Confirmatory Factor Analysis ; Psychometrics ; Body Image Disturbance ; Muscle Dysmorphia ; Gender Differences ; Exploratory Factor Analysis
    ISSN: 0276-3478
    E-ISSN: 1098-108X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Naturwissenschaften, 2011, Vol.98(12), pp.995-1008
    Description: Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.
    Keywords: spp. ; Salivary gland cells ; Saliva ; Blood feeding ; Salivary proteins ; Medical applications
    ISSN: 0028-1042
    E-ISSN: 1432-1904
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Forest Policy and Economics, 2011, Vol.13(1), pp.1-15
    Description: Several parametric and non-parametric approaches have been developed to value financial assets. Yet, financial valuation techniques have only slowly percolated into disciplines concerned with the management of ecosystems. Particularly in forest management, decision-makers often find themselves confronted with extremely long time horizons and severely uncertain information. This requires careful valuation approaches, which are often underrepresented or even completely lacking in forest management. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on techniques for financial decision-making under uncertainty and develops future research needs. First, we analyse different approaches from the expected utility framework as well as option pricing models and robust optimisation techniques as possible approaches to make decisions on forest investments and giving a short review regarding forestry-related applications. Afterwards we discuss the suitability of the presented approaches to support decisions in forestry and conclude that robust optimisation techniques should be developed further, especially since erroneous financial data is likely to occur, as well as deviations from the assumption of normality. Currently, the maximization of financial robustness is probably the most adequate approach for many long-term decisions in forestry, such as selecting the optimum tree species composition. Further development of this approach appears possible and necessary. Finally, we come to the conclusion that even though it is intuitively clear that many long-term decisions should consider uncertainty, adequate financial valuation is not sufficiently developed within forest science. In the case of Central Europe, this may be an effect of ecological research dominating in forest science. Consequently, an intensification of the analysis of uncertainty in forest decision-making is necessary.
    Keywords: Uncertainty ; Diversification ; Expected Utility ; Mean-Variance ; Option Pricing ; Stochastic Dominance ; Downside Risk ; Lower Partial Moment ; Information-Gap Decision Theory ; Robust Optimisation ; Forestry
    ISSN: 1389-9341
    E-ISSN: 1872-7050
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Chemical engineering science, 2011, Vol.66(23), pp.6254-6263
    Description: This work uses vapour–liquid equilibrium (VLE) to explain the observed two-alpha product distribution in Fischer–Tropsch (FT) reactors. We discuss three possible scenarios or cases of Anderson–Schulz–Flory (ASF) product distribution and VLE. The three cases assume the following: (1) the reaction sets up a single alpha ASF distribution in the total (vapour+liquid) products, (2) the vapour phase follows a single alpha distribution and (3) a single alpha distribution is set up in the liquid phase. We then look at the consequences of these assumptions in conjunction with a simple Raoult's law VLE model on the exit product distributions. We find that only Case 3 gives rise to a two-alpha model in accordance with experimental results that is frequently observed in FT reactors. This model further predicts a relationship between the two values of alpha that are consistent with the measured experimental results. ; p. 6254-6263.
    Keywords: Models ; Vapors ; Chemical Engineering
    ISSN: 0009-2509
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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