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  • AGRIS (United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization)  (17)
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  • 1
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    Lexington, Ky: Eclipse Press
    Language: English
    Description: by Ruth Sabine Schaefer ; foreword by Conrad Schumacher. ; 202 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
    Keywords: Dressage
    ISBN: 1581500939
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 2
    In: New Phytologist, March 2009, Vol.181(4), pp.802-807
    Description: •  A 13CO2 (99 atom‐%, 350 ppm) incubation experiment was performed to identify active bacterial endophytes in two cultivars of Solanum tuberosum, cultivars Desirée and Merkur. We showed that after the assimilation and photosynthetic transformation of 13CO2 into 13C‐labeled metabolites by the plant, the most directly active, cultivar‐specific heterotrophic endophytic bacteria that consume these labeled metabolites can be identified by DNA stable isotope probing (DNA‐SIP). •  Density‐resolved DNA fractions obtained from SIP were subjected to 16S rRNA gene‐based community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of generated gene libraries. •  Community profiling revealed community compositions that were dominated by plant chloroplast and mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes for the ‘light’ fractions of 13CO2‐incubated potato cultivars and of potato cultivars not incubated with 13CO2. In the ‘heavy’ fractions of the 13CO2‐incubated endophyte DNA, a bacterial 492‐bp terminal restriction fragment became abundant, which could be clearly identified as Acinetobacter and Acidovorax spp. in cultivars Merkur and Desirée, respectively, indicating cultivar‐dependent distinctions in 13C‐label flow. These two species represent two common potato endophytes with known plant‐beneficial activities. •  The approach demonstrated the successful detection of active bacterial endophytes in potato. DNA‐SIP therefore offers new opportunities for exploring the complex nature of plant–microbe interactions and plant‐dependent microbial metabolisms within the endosphere.
    Keywords: 13 C‐Dna Stable Isotope Probing ; 16s Rrna Gene‐Based Community Analysis ; Active Bacterial Endophytes ; Plant–Microbe Interaction ; Solanum Tuberosum Potato
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biology of Reproduction, 2010, Vol.82(1), pp.214-223
    Description: textabstractFormation of the germ cell lineage involves multiple processes, including repression of somatic differentiation and reacquisition of pluripotency as well as a unique epigenetic constitution. The transcriptional regulator Prdm1 has been identified as a main coordinator of this process, controlling...
    Keywords: Ap-2γ ; B Lymphocyte Induced Maturation Protein 1 ; Dna Glycosylase Muty ; Dazl Protein ; Developmental Biology ; Gamete Biology ; Gene Regulation ; Hoxb1 ; Myod1 Protein ; Nanos 3 Protein ; Prdm1 ; Prdm1 Protein ; Primordial Germ Cells ; Somatic Differentiation ; Tcfap2c ; Tcam-2 ; Tcfap2c Protein ; Aminomethyltransferase ; Animal ; Animal Experiment ; Animal Tissue ; Apoptosis ; Article ; Binding Protein ; Biological Marker ; Cell Differentiation ; Controlled Study ; Development And Aging ; Dipeptide Binding Protein ; Embryo ; Embryo Cell ; Embryo Development ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Germ Cell ; Growth ; Homeobox B1 Protein ; In Vitro Study ; Male ; Membrane Protein ; Mesoderm ; Metabolism ; Mouse ; Mutant ; Nonhuman ; Primordial Germ Cell ; Priority Journal ; Protein Function ; Reproduction ; Transcription Factor ; Transcription Factor Ap 2 ; Transcription Factor Hand 1 ; Transcription Factor Hoxa 1 ; Transcription Factor Tcfap2c ; Transgenic Mouse ; Unclassified Drug ; Upregulation
    ISSN: 00063363
    E-ISSN: 15297268
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental microbiology, April 2007, Vol.9(4), pp.1035-46
    Description: Benzylsuccinate synthase (Bss) is the key enzyme of anaerobic toluene degradation and has been found in all anaerobic toluene degrading bacterial isolates tested. However, only a few pure cultures capable of anaerobic toluene oxidation are available to date, and it is important to understand the relevance of these model organisms for in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers. Due to their phylogenetic dispersal, it is not possible to specifically target anaerobic toluene degraders using marker rRNA genes. We therefore established an assay targeting a approximately 794 bp fragment within the Bss alpha-subunit (bssA) gene, which allows for the specific detection and affiliation of both known and unknown anaerobic degraders. Three distinct tar-oil-contaminated aquifer sites were screened for intrinsic bssA gene pools in order to identify and compare the diversity of hydrocarbon degraders present at these selected sites. We were able to show that local diversity patterns of degraders were entirely distinct, apparently highly specialized and well-adapted to local biogeochemical settings. Discovered at one of the sites were bssA genes closely related to that of Geobacter spp., which provides evidence for an importance of iron reduction for toluene degradation in these sediments. Retrieved from the other two sites, dominated by sulfate reduction, were previously unidentified bssA genes and also deeply branching putative bssA homologues. We provide evidence for a previously unrecognized diversity of anaerobic toluene degraders and also of other hydrocarbon degraders using fumarate-adding key reactions in contaminated aquifers. These findings enhance our current understanding of intrinsic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities in perturbed aquifers and may have potential for the future assessment and prediction of natural attenuation based on degradation genes.
    Keywords: Carbon-Carbon Lyases -- Genetics ; Fresh Water -- Microbiology ; Toluene -- Metabolism ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 1462-2912
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental sciences Europe, 2015, Vol.27(1), p.36
    Description: Bioaccumulation, the accumulation of a chemical in an organism relative to its level in the ambient medium, is of major environmental concern. Thus, monitoring chemical concentrations in biota are widely and increasingly used for assessing the chemical status of aquatic ecosystems. In this paper, various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental risk assessment. Assessing bioaccumulation in the field is challenging since many factors have to be considered that can affect the accumulation of a chemical in an organism. Passive sampling can complement biota monitoring since samplers with standardised partition properties can be used over a wide temporal and geographical range. Bioaccumulation is also assessed for regulation of chemicals of environmental concern whereby mainly data from laboratory studies on fish bioaccumulation are used. Field data can, however, provide additional important information for regulators. Strategies for bioaccumulation assessment still need to be harmonised for different regulations and groups of chemicals. To create awareness for critical issues and to mutually benefit from technical expertise and scientific findings, communication between risk assessment and monitoring communities needs to be improved. Scientists can support the establishment of new monitoring programs for bioaccumulation, e.g. in the frame of the amended European Environmental Quality Standard Directive. ; p. 36.
    Keywords: Monitoring ; Fish ; Environmental Quality ; Scientists ; Risk Assessment ; Environmental Assessment ; Compliance ; Samplers ; Aquatic Ecosystems ; Bioaccumulation
    ISSN: 2190-4707
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic Acids Research, 1995, Vol.23(6), pp.910-916
    Description: Replication of the single-stranded DNA genome of plant geminiviruses follows a rolling circle mechanism. It strictly depends on a 'rolling circle replication initiator protein', the Mr 41 kDa viral Rep protein, encoded by the C1 or AC1 genes. Using wheat dwarf virus (WDV) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) as examples, we show that not only the full-size Rep proteins, but also a putative 30 kDa translation product of WDV open reading frame C1-N as well as an artificially shortened 24 kDa Rep of TYLCV, cleave and join single-stranded origin DNA in vitro. Thus the pivotal origin recognition and processing activities of geminivirus Rep proteins must be mediated by the amino-terminal domain of Rep. ; Includes references ; p. 910-916.
    Keywords: Geminiviridae ; Wheat Dwarf Virus ; Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus ; Dna Replication ; Genome;
    ISSN: 0305-1048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Plant Cell, 1 March 1991, Vol.3(3), pp.247-258
    Description: Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) is a geminivirus that infects monocotyledonous plants. To exploit the potential of WDV as a replicative gene vector, we developed a transient replication and expression system based on the transfection of protoplasts derived from Triticum monococcum suspension culture cells. Cloned genomic copies of various WDV isolates as well as mutants constructed in vitro were introduced into the protoplasts and assayed for their ability to replicate. As a result, regions of the WDV genome necessary or dispensable for the viral DNA replication could be defined. In addition, the gene encoding the viral capsid protein was replaced by three different bacterial marker genes, neomycin phosphotransferase, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, and β-galactosidase. The β-galactosidase gene doubled the size of the WDV genome. The replication of the recombinant WDV genomes and the expression of these genes were monitored in suspension culture cells of T. monococcum. The potential of replicative expression vectors based on the WDV genome is discussed.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Nucleocapsid proteins ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- Nucleocapsid proteins ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology -- Nucleocapsid proteins ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Nucleocapsid proteins ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- Nucleocapsid proteins ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- Nucleocapsid proteins ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Nucleocapsid proteins ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- Nucleocapsid proteins ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology -- Nucleocapsid proteins ; Applied sciences -- Laboratory techniques -- Culture techniques -- Nucleocapsid proteins
    ISSN: 10404651
    E-ISSN: 1532298X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1983, Vol.97(2), pp.107-119
    Description: Conditioned extension of the proboscis in restrained honeybees with odor as the CS and sucrose solution––delivered to the antenna (to elicit extension of the proboscis) and then to the proboscis itself––as the UCS. In a 1st series of experiments, acquisition was found to be rapid, both in massed and in spaced trials; its associative basis was established by differential conditioning and by an explicitly unpaired control procedure. Both extinction and spontaneous recovery in massed trials were demonstrated. In experiments on the nature of the UCS, eliminating the proboscis component lowered the asymptotic level of performance, whereas eliminating the antennal component was without effect; reducing the concentration of sucrose from 20% to 7% slowed acquisition but did not lower the asymptotic level of performance; and second-order conditioning was demonstrated. In experiments on the role of the UCS, an omission contingency designed to eliminate adventitious response-reinforcer contiguity was found to have no adverse effect on acquisition. In experiments designed to analyze the resistance to acquisition found after explicitly unpaired training in the 1st experiments, no significant effect was found of prior exposure either to the CS alone or to the UCS alone, although the unpaired procedure again produced resistance that was shown to be due to inhibition rather than to inattention; extinction after paired training was found to be facilitated by unpaired presentations of the UCS. (33 ref)
    Keywords: Bees ; Conditioning, Classical ; Eating;
    ISSN: 0735-7036
    E-ISSN: 1939-2087
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 05 July 2011, Vol.108(27), pp.11187-92
    Description: We describe a generic approach to assemble correctly two heavy and two light chains, derived from two existing antibodies, to form human bivalent bispecific IgG antibodies without use of artificial linkers. Based on the knobs-into-holes technology that enables heterodimerization of the heavy chains, correct association of the light chains and their cognate heavy chains is achieved by exchange of heavy-chain and light-chain domains within the antigen binding fragment (Fab) of one half of the bispecific antibody. This "crossover" retains the antigen-binding affinity but makes the two arms so different that light-chain mispairing can no longer occur. Applying the three possible "CrossMab" formats, we generated bispecific antibodies against angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and show that they can be produced by standard techniques, exhibit stabilities comparable to natural antibodies, and bind both targets simultaneously with unaltered affinity. Because of its superior side-product profile, the CrossMab(CH1-CL) was selected for in vivo profiling and showed potent antiangiogenic and antitumoral activity.
    Keywords: Antibodies, Bispecific -- Biosynthesis ; Immunoglobulin G -- Biosynthesis
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Diabetes care, January 2011, Vol.34(1), pp.39-43
    Description: Serial measurements of the fetal abdominal circumference have been used to guide metabolic management of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A reduction in the number of repeat ultrasound examinations would save resources. Our purpose was to determine the number of serial abdominal circumference measurements per patient necessary to reliably predict the absence of fetal overgrowth. Women who had GDM were asked to return for repeat ultrasound at 3- to 4-week intervals starting at initiation of care (mean 26.9 ± 5.7 weeks). Maternal risk factors associated with fetal overgrowth were determined. A total of 4,478 ultrasound examinations were performed on 1,914 subjects (2.3 ± 1.2 per pregnancy). Of the 518 women with fetal abdominal circumference 〉90th percentile, it was diagnosed in 73.9% with the first ultrasound examination at entry and in 13.1% with the second ultrasound examination. Of the fetuses, 85.9 and 86.9% of the fetuses were born non-large for gestational age (LGA) when abdominal circumference was 30 kg/m², history of macrosomia, and fasting glucose 〉 100 mg/dl), the accuracy of prediction of a non-LGA neonate was 90.0, 89.5, and 95.2%. The predictive ability did not increase with more than two normal scans. The yield of sonographic diagnosis of a large fetus drops markedly after the finding of a fetal abdominal circumference 〈90th percentile on two sonograms, which excludes with high reliability the risk of a LGA newborn. The ability was enhanced in women who had no risk factors for neonatal macrosomia.
    Keywords: Ultrasonography, Prenatal ; Diabetes, Gestational -- Physiopathology ; Fetal Macrosomia -- Diagnosis
    ISSN: 01495992
    E-ISSN: 1935-5548
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