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  • AGRIS (United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization)  (65)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 05 May 2015, Vol.112(18), pp.5750-5
    Description: Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., macroinvertebrate family richness is reduced by ∼30% at pesticide concentrations equaling the legally accepted regulatory threshold levels (RTLs). This study provides a comprehensive metaanalysis of 838 peer-reviewed studies (〉2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and how risks depend on insecticide development over time and stringency of environmental regulation. Our analysis reveals that MICs occur rarely (i.e., an estimated 97.4% of analyses conducted found no MICs) and there is a complete lack of scientific monitoring data for ∼90% of global cropland. Most importantly, of the 11,300 MICs, 52.4% (5,915 cases; 68.5% of the sites) exceeded the RTL for either surface water (RTLSW) or sediments. Thus, the biological integrity of global water resources is at a substantial risk. RTLSW exceedances depend on the catchment size, sampling regime, and sampling date; are significantly higher for newer-generation insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids); and are high even in countries with stringent environmental regulations. These results suggest the need for worldwide improvements to current pesticide regulations and agricultural pesticide application practices and for intensified research efforts on the presence and effects of pesticides under real-world conditions.
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Biodiversity ; Global Surface Waters ; Insecticide Contamination ; Regulatory Risk Assessment ; Environmental Monitoring -- Methods ; Insecticides -- Analysis ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 2011, Vol.45(13), pp.3999-4007
    Description: Ozone application is an effective tool to reduce loads of (micro)pollutants in wastewater, however, its ecotoxicological implications are largely unknown. Therefore, the feeding rates of a leaf-shredding invertebrate ( ) exposed to secondary (=non-ozone) or ozone treated wastewater were investigated to assess potential ecotoxicological effects. Two repetitive experiments resulted in significantly higher feeding rates for gammarids exposed to ozone compared to non-ozone treated wastewater sampled from a treatment plant equipped with a full-scale ozonation. A further experiment confirmed these results also for wastewater from the same treatment plant, when ozonation was conducted at the lab-scale. However, the deviations in dissolved organic carbon profiles of ozone and non-ozone wastewater did not seem to be the driving factor for the effects observed. Two additional experiments displayed on the one hand a higher feeding rate of if exposed to ten-fold enriched eluates from solid phase extraction cartridges loaded with ozone compared to non-ozone treated wastewater. On the other hand, the mean feeding rate of gammarids exposed to non-ozone treated wastewater, which contained hardly any (micro)pollutants (i.e. pharmaceuticals), was at the same level as wastewater from the same source additionally treated with ozone. These results suggest that not an alteration in the organic matrix but a reduction in the load of micropollutants most likely triggered the effects in the bioassay applied. Hence, the feeding rate of appears to be a well-suited bioassay to indicate alterations in ecotoxicological properties of wastewater due to the application of advanced oxidation processes like ozonation. ► Ozonation of municipal wastewater reduces ecotoxicity for gammarids. ► Alteration in organic matrix caused by ozonation did not affect gammarids. ► Loads of micropollutants seem to trigger the effects in the feeding assay. ► Feeding assays suggest to be suitable to evaluate advance oxidation techniques.
    Keywords: Pharmaceuticals ; Ozone ; By-Products ; Solid Phase Extraction ; Gammarus ; Feeding Assay ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, July 2013, Vol.92(5), pp.483-489
    Description: ► The invasive aquatic amphipod is more tolerant to lambda-cyhalothrin than the native one. ► Predation success on Baetis nymphs is substantially higher for than ► may contribute substantially to leaf litter decomposition. Invasive species are considered as one of the major threats for biodiversity worldwide. The Ponto-Caspian species , for instance, spread throughout continental Europe and was recorded for the first time also within Lake Constance in 2003. Although is a highly competitive species it was not capable of replacing the native completely in this ecosystem, especially in the riparian zones of the highly agriculturally used island “Reichenau”. As differences in pesticide sensitivity between both amphipod species may explain their distribution, the present study assessed the implication of the highly toxic pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, which is authorized for application in the Lake Constance region, assuming the invasive species being more sensitive than the native one. However, both the feeding activity bioassays, which measured the leaf consumption over 7 d ( = 20), as well as the predation bioassay, which measured the predation rate upon nymphs in concert with the feeding activity on leaf material over 96 h ( = 13), revealed an up to 5-fold higher tolerance of towards lambda-cyhalothrin. These results suggest the investigated insecticide not being the trigger for the observed distribution pattern of both amphipod species. Hence, other factors like the diversity of habitat structures or the levels of ammonia may have facilitated the coexistence. Nevertheless, the present study uncovered a high leaf-shredding efficacy of the invasive species suggesting that its role in the leaf decomposition process may have been underestimated in the past.
    Keywords: Functional Feeding Group ; Insecticide ; Leaf Litter Decomposition ; Ecosystem Function ; Predator–Prey Interaction ; Freshwater Biodiversity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2010, Vol.408(22), pp.5405-5413
    Description: The implementation of a geodata-based probabilistic pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in Germany offers the opportunity to base the exposure estimation on more differentiated assumptions including detailed landscape characteristics. Since these characteristics can only be estimated using field surveys, water body width and depth, hydrology, riparian buffer strip width, ground vegetation cover, existence of concentrated flow paths, and riparian vegetation were characterised at 104 water body segments in the vineyard region Palatinate (south-west Germany). Water body segments classified as permanent (n = 43) had median values of water body width and depth of 0.9 m and 0.06 m, respectively, and the determined median width:depth ratio was 15. Thus, the deterministic water body model (width = 1 m; depth = 0.3 m) assumed in regulatory exposure assessment seems unsuitable for small water bodies in the study area. Only 25% of investigated buffer strips had a dense vegetation cover (〉 70%) and allow a laminar sheet flow as required to include them as an effective pesticide runoff reduction landscape characteristic. At 77 buffer strips, bordering field paths and erosion rills leading into the water body were present, concentrating pesticide runoff and consequently decreasing buffer strip efficiency. The vegetation type shrubbery (height 〉 1.5 m) was present at 57 (29%) investigated riparian buffer strips. According to their median optical vegetation density of 75%, shrubberies may provide a spray drift reduction of 72 ± 29%. Implementing detailed knowledge in an overall assessment revealed that exposure via drift might be 2.4 and via runoff up to 1.6 fold higher than assumed by the deterministic approach. Furthermore, considering vegetated buffer strips only by their width leads to an underestimation of exposure by a factor of as much as four. Our data highlight that the deterministic model assumptions neither represent worst-case nor median values and therefore cannot simply be adopted in a probabilistic approach.
    Keywords: Probabilistic Exposure Assessment ; Pesticide ; Exposure ; Riparian Buffer Strips ; Field Survey ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2012, Vol.146(1), pp.81-92
    Description: ► We found fungicides frequently in-stream, also in community-relevant concentrations. ► Median copper concentrations in water and sediment were 5.4 μg l and 32.3 mg kg dw. ► Runoff transport via field paths reduced pesticide reduction capacity of buffers. ► In-stream pesticide spectrum was clearly attributed to entries via erosion rills. ► Vegetated field paths or wetlands are suggested to reduce entries via erosion rills. The present study was performed to characterise in-stream pesticide exposure within the Palatinate vineyard region in south-west Germany, evaluate the influence of buffer strip widths and identify mitigation measures for the relevant entry pathways. In-stream water and sediment samples that were taken at nine sampling sites of different buffer widths following intense rainfall, and edge-of-field runoff that were sampled in erosion rills were analysed regarding 28 active ingredients of pesticides including copper. In-stream samples contained a mix of 8 ± 4 pesticide compounds, resulting in total pesticide concentrations of 1.4–8.9 μg l for water and 16–670 μg kg dw for sediment. Following an exceptional rainfall event with a previous 34-day drought period, pesticide concentrations reached 7.0–83.4 μg l . Fungicides were the most important pesticides found and were significantly correlated with the pesticide application frequency and rate. The calculated toxicity values per sample (TU ) indicated that both organic pesticides and copper concentrations likely cause ecotoxicological effects in the field. The buffer strip width was of little importance for pesticide in-stream concentrations because pesticide entry occurred mainly via the field path network and erosion rills. Pesticide in-stream concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations detected in erosion rills ( = 0.56). As possible risk mitigation measures, we suggest the implementation of grassed field paths and vegetated ditches or wetlands.
    Keywords: Fungicide ; Copper ; Buffer Strips ; Surface Water ; Monitoring ; Exposure ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.82(3), pp.355-361
    Description: Advanced oxidation technologies such as ozonation have been proposed to improve removal efficiency of micropollutants during wastewater treatment. In a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed literature, we found no ecotoxicological effects of wastewater ozonation on invertebrates ( = 82), but significant adverse effects on bacteria ( = 24) and fish ( = 5). As information on functional endpoints or trophic interactions is lacking, we applied a bioassay relating to leaf litter decomposition to fill this gap. Leaf discs exposed to ozone-treated wastewater with a high (1.04 mg O (mg DOC) , = 49) ozone concentration were significantly preferred by an aquatic detritivore, , over discs conditioned in wastewater not treated with ozone. This effect might have been mediated by reduced bacterial and elevated fungal biomass, and appears to be the first demonstration of wastewater ozonation impacts on invertebrates and an associated ecosystem process. In accordance with the food-choice trials, chemical analyses revealed significantly decreased concentrations of organic micropollutants in wastewater treated with ozone at high concentrations. Thus, food-choice trials as applied here hold promise to assess environmental effects of advanced oxidation technologies in wastewater treatment and appear to be a valuable complement to the ecotoxicological toolbox in general.
    Keywords: Food Choice ; Indirect Effects ; Gammaridae ; Litter Decomposition ; Biocides ; Psychoactive Drugs ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2011, Vol.192(2), pp.772-778
    Description: ► Meta-analysis displays reduced toxicity of wastewater due to activated carbon or ozone. ► Groups of species (invertebrates) react different than others (e.g. bacteria). ► Purification via SPE may overestimate the detoxification potential. ► bioassays showed reduced ecotoxicity due to activated carbon, ozone and TiO and UV. ► Activated carbon adsorbs nutrients, which may jeopardize any positive effect of this technique. Advanced treatment techniques, like ozone, activated carbon and TiO in combination with UV, are proposed to improve removal efficiency of micropollutants during wastewater treatment. In a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed literature, we found significantly reduced overall ecotoxicity of municipal wastewaters treated with either ozone ( = 667) or activated carbon (=113), while TiO and UV was not yet assessed. As comparative investigations regarding the detoxification potential of these advanced treatment techniques in municipal wastewater are scarce, we assessed them in four separate -feeding trials with 20 replicates per treatment. These bioassays indicate that ozone concentrations of approximately 0.8 mg ozone/mg DOC may produce toxic transformation products. However, referred effects are removed if higher ozone concentrations are used (1.3 mg ozone/mg DOC). Moreover, the application of 1 g TiO /l and ambient UV consistently reduced ecotoxicity. Although activated carbon may remove besides micropollutants also nutrients, which seemed to mask its detoxification potential, this treatment technique reduced the ecotoxicity of the wastewater following its amendment with nutrients. Hence, all three advanced treatment techniques are suitable to reduce the ecotoxicity of municipal wastewater mediated by micropollutants and may hence help to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive.
    Keywords: Meta-Analysis ; Feeding Rate ; Wastewater ; Advanced Oxidation ; Activated Carbon ; Engineering ; Law
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    E-ISSN: 1873-3336
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  • 8
    In: Freshwater Biology, April 2014, Vol.59(4), pp.761-776
    Description: Reconstructing the phylogeographic history of a species can aid in defining areas of conservation priority. For freshwater species, historical river structure plays a significant role in explaining genetic differentiation and population structure. However, human‐induced translocations can erase the natural genetic structure, especially for species of commercial interest such as the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus). Our aim was to reconstruct the current genetic structure of the endangered noble crayfish in central Europe to identify refugial areas that are hotspots of genetic diversity. We analysed a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the 16S rRNA from 540 noble crayfish specimens from 156 sampling sites distributed around five European sea basins. Additionally, we conducted a microsatellite analysis of 289 individuals from 22 sites. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed genetically relatively homogenous populations in central Europe that had been influenced by anthropogenic translocations. However, some areas (Eider catchment in northern Germany and Rhineland‐Palatinate in south‐western Germany) show a distinct genetic structure with endemic haplotypes and private alleles indicating (i) that these areas were refugia for A. astacus in central Europe and (ii) that these populations have not been subject to anthropogenic translocations. Further, we found the highest genetic diversity in the Black Sea basin and particularly high differentiation between populations from the western Balkans and the remaining Black Sea populations. The split between Western Balkan and the remaining European populations is estimated to have occurred approximately 700 k years before present, whereas remaining differentiations occurred within the last 450 k years. Using migration modelling, we detected that the North Sea basin and the Baltic Sea basin were colonised independently via different colonisation paths from the eastern Black Sea basin, while the western Balkans did not contribute to this colonisation. Our results suggest the existence of at least two refugial areas in south‐eastern Europe. To conserve maximum genetic diversity, conservation priorities for noble crayfish should focus on the south‐eastern European genetic hotspots and on populations in central Europe that hold an autochthonous genetic structure (e.g. Langsee in the Eider catchment area). We further propose that each river catchment should form a separate management unit to reduce anthropogenic genetic homogenisation.
    Keywords: Human‐Mediated Translocation ; Microsatellite Analysis ; Migration Model ; Mitochondrial ; Refugial Areas
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 9
    In: Freshwater Biology, December 2014, Vol.59(12), pp.2645-2655
    Description: Biodiversity is globally threatened by the replacement of native species by invasive species and ensuing changes in ecosystem functioning. Although trophic linkages between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems have received attention, effects of aquatic invasive species on the flow of resource subsidies have been considered only recently. We examined how the effects of one of the most invasive macroinvertebrate species in European waterways, the amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus, extend from streams to the terrestrial food web. We quantified aquatic emergence and the contribution of aquatic resources to the diets of two riparian spider taxa in relation to the density of D. villosus. Our results indicated that the effects of this invasive species carry over to the terrestrial system via cross‐ecosystem flow of resource subsidy. The contribution of aquatic resources to the diet of the terrestrial web‐building spider Tetragnatha decreased from 60% at low densities of D. villosus to 10% at a D. villosus density 〉5000 individuals m−2. This correlates with a decreasing emergence rate of merolimnic midges (species with an aquatic larval phase) from 12 to 〈3 mg dry biomass m−2 day−1 at the respective densities of D. villosus. The magnitude of biomass flow from the aquatic to the terrestrial ecosystem is most likely decreased by D. villosus, and this decrease extends to the diet of riparian web‐building spiders. Effects of this aquatic invader may also extend to a decoupling of the terrestrial ecosystem from the aquatic ecosystem in terms of subsidy flux.
    Keywords: Aquatic–Terrestrial Interaction ; Dikerogammarus Villosus ; Riparian Spider ; Stable Isotopes ; Tetragnatha
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, January 2011, Vol.159(1), pp.244-249
    Description: Climate change scenarios predict lower flow rates during summer that may lead to higher proportions of wastewater in small and medium sized streams. Moreover, micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals and other contaminants) continuously enter aquatic environments via treated wastewater. However, there is a paucity of knowledge, whether extended exposure to secondary treated wastewater disrupts important ecosystem functions, e.g. leaf breakdown. Therefore, the amphipod shredder was exposed to natural stream water (  = 34) and secondary treated wastewater (  = 32) for four weeks in a semi-static test system under laboratory conditions. exposed to wastewater showed significant reductions in feeding rate (25%), absolute consumption (35%), food assimilation (50%), dry weight (18%) and lipid content (22%). Thus, high proportions of wastewater in the stream flow may affect both the breakdown rates of leaf material and thus the availability of energy for the aquatic food web as well as the energy budget of . Micropollutants in wastewater cause functional and physiological alteration in a leaf-shredding amphipod.
    Keywords: Advanced Treatment Technology ; Ecological Functioning ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Wastewater ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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