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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2005, Vol.124(4), pp.261-271
    Description: Based on the results of the atmospheric deposition classification of the year 1989, a methodical approach should be introduced, which—based on the modelled total deposition rates—enables us to characterise the input situation of forest monitoring plots and to delimit load areas in Germany. In 1989, the deposition situation in nearly 1,800 forest monitoring sites (BZE/extensive Soil Condition Inventory) in Germany could be explained by four factors (or three, excluding sea salt impact) with the help of a factor analysis. The factor values were grouped into six deposition types with typical compounds and regional patterns. The classified input rates of the soil inventory plots adequately represent the stress situation and deposition changes in Germany. The application of the statistical approach on the level of Brandenburg clarifies the special local input situation. Due to the special combination of deposed elements, the sources of emissions can be characterised as well. When the soil inventory is repeated, a project planned for 2006, this approach can be used in order to determine homogenous areas for stratified data evaluation.
    Keywords: Atmospheric deposition ; Emissions ; Multivariate statistics ; Germany ; Brandenburg ; Forest ; Monitoring
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 2
    In: Global Change Biology, August 2014, Vol.20(8), pp.2644-2662
    Description: The ational orest oil nventory () provides the reenhouse as eporting in ermany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon () stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and land cover data. Mineral soil stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the oil ap of ermany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer pool as stable although was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha yr. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of , whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil . We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine‐earth stock variances, rather by the concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for entral urope, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil pool development for a certain period.
    Keywords: C/N Ratio ; Carbon Sequestration ; Carbon Stocks ; Forest Stand Type ; Mineral Soil ; Nation Forest Soil Inventory ; Organic Layer ; Soil Groups ; Soil Organic Matter ; Soil Survey ; Tree Species ; Uncertainties
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2009, Vol.128(5), pp.483-492
    Description: In this study, the supply and input–output balances of phosphorus (P) were investigated for a 10-year-period at 85 long-term monitoring sites in German forest ecosystems under the European Level II programme. These sites encompass 23 European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) stands, 9 oak stands comprised of common oak ( Quercus robur L.) and/or sessile oak ( Quercus petraea Liebl.), 20 Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and 33 Norway spruce ( Picea abies H.Karst.) stands. We quantified P concentrations in needles and leaves, P inputs from the atmosphere, P outputs through leaching and harvesting, and total P in the soil and humus layers. The P concentrations in European beech leaves from two sites (〉1 mg P g −1 dry weight), and in Norway spruce needles from four sites (〉1.2 mg P g −1 dry weight), were deficient over several years. In contrast, the oak and Scots pine sites were well supplied with P. When P removal through harvesting was disregarded, P balances were positive or stable (median 0.21 kg P ha −1  a −1 ). With harvesting, balances were mostly negative (median −0.35 kg P ha −1  a −1 ), with long-term P removal from the forest ecosystems.
    Keywords: Input–output balance ; Phosphorus ; Forest ecosystems ; Nutrient supply ; N:P ratio ; Level II sites
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2016, Vol.179(2), pp.129-135
    Description: Phosphorus is one of the major limiting factors of primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems and, thus, the P demand of plants might be among the most important drivers of soil and ecosystem development. The P cycling in forest ecosystems seems an ideal example to illustrate the concept of ecosystem nutrition. Ecosystem nutrition combines and extents the traditional concepts of nutrient cycling and ecosystem ecology. The major extension is to consider also the loading and unloading of nutrient cycles and the impact of nutrient acquiring and recycling processes on overall ecosystem properties. Ecosystem nutrition aims to integrate nutrient related aspects at different scales and in different ecosystem compartments including all processes, interactions and feedbacks associated with the nutrition of an ecosystem. We review numerous previous studies dealing with P nutrition from this ecosystem nutrition perspective. The available information contributes to the description of basic ecosystem characteristics such as emergence, hierarchy, and robustness. In result, we were able to refine Odum's hypothesis on P nutrition strategies along ecosystem succession to substrate related ecosystem nutrition and development. We hypothesize that at sites rich in mineral‐bound P, plant and microbial communities tend to introduce P from primary minerals into the biogeochemical P cycle (acquiring systems), and hence the tightness of the P cycle is of minor relevance for ecosystem functioning. In contrast, tight P recycling is a crucial emergent property of forest ecosystems established at sites poor in mineral bound P (recycling systems). We conclude that the integration of knowledge on nutrient cycling, soil science, and ecosystem ecology into holistic ecosystem nutrition will provide an entirely new view on soil–plant–microbe interactions.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Properties ; P Recycling ; P Nutrition Strategy ; Forest Nutrition ; P Acquiring
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2005, Vol.124(4), pp.251-260
    Description: In the 1970s unexpected forest damages, called “new type of forest damage” or “forest decline”, were observed in Germany and other European countries. The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Federal States implemented a forest monitoring system in the early 1980s, in order to monitor and assess the forest condition. Due to the growing public awareness of possible adverse effects of air pollution on forests, in 1985 the ICP Forests was launched under the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (CLRTAP) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE). The German experience in forest monitoring was a base for the implementation of the European monitoring system. In 2001 the interdisciplinary case study “concept and feasibility study for the integrated evaluation of environmental monitoring data in forests”, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, concentrated on in-depths evaluations of the German data of forest monitoring. The objectives of the study were: (a) a reliable assessment of the vitality and functioning of forest ecosystems, (b) the identification and quantification of factors influencing forest vitality, and (c) the clarification of cause-effect-relationships leading to leaf/needle loss. For these purposes additional data from external sources were acquired: climate and deposition, for selected level I plots tree growth data, as well as data on groundwater quality. The results show that in particular time series analysis (crown condition, tree growth, and tree ring analysis), in combination with climate and deposition are valuable and informative, as well as integrated evaluation of soil, tree nutrition and crown condition data. Methods to combine information from the extensive and the intensive monitoring, and to transfer process information to the large scale should be elaborated in future.
    Keywords: Environmental monitoring ; Data management ; Forest growth ; Critical loads ; Regionalization ; Integrated evaluation ; Modelling ; Forest vitality ; Crown condition
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary international, 2012, Vol.266, pp.131-141
    Description: An early to mid-Holocene humid period has been inferred from a variety of geo-bio-archives of the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula including sabkhas, palaeo-lakes, sand dunes, wadis, speleothems or marine sediments. On the Arabian Peninsula, most of these records are located in the southern and southeastern part. Studies from the northern part are rare. This paper presents the first results from palaeo-environmental and hydrological investigations on the sabkha basin of the Tayma oasis, northwestern Saudi Arabia. Sedimentary characteristics, micro- and macrofauna, a digital elevation model based on DGPS measurements, and ¹⁴C-AMS data indicate the presence of a perennial lake with a minimum depth of 13 m, a stored water volume of 1.16 × 10⁷ m³ and a surface of 18.45 km² between 10,000–9000 cal BP. Foraminiferal test malformations and the shape of sieve pores on ostracod valves were used to detect trends in palaeo-salinity and ecological stress conditions. The reconstructed gradual contraction of the lake at least after 8500 cal BP reflects the long-term aridisation trend on the Arabian Peninsula after the early Holocene. Based on the hydrological water balance equation, quantitative data on minimum palaeo-rainfall during the early Holocene humid period were calculated. Input parameters for the equation are the minimum lake level, lake surface, and lake volume during the peak of the early Holocene humid period as well as palaeo-evapotranspiration, groundwater infiltration, and surface runoff. Accordingly, a perennial lake in the endorheic basin of the modern sabkha with a lake level at the same elevation as the uppermost shoreline deposit would have required a minimum annual precipitation of 150 ± 25 mm. This value amounts to c. 300% of recent precipitation rates. ; p. 131-141.
    Keywords: Digital Elevation Models ; Dunes ; Fauna ; Lakes ; Shorelines ; Atmospheric Precipitation ; Equations ; Water Balance ; Groundwater ; Oases ; Marine Sediments ; Runoff ; Basins ; Microfossils
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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