Environmental science & technology, 15 June 2010, Vol.44(12), pp.4651-7
The worldwide use of veterinary antibiotics poses a continuous threat to the environment. There is, however, a lack of mechanistic studies on sorption and transformation processes for environmental assessment in soils. Two-week batch sorption experiments were performed with the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the plow layer and the subsoil of a loamy sand and a silty loam. The sorption and transformation parameters of SDZ and its main transformation products N1-2-(4-hydroxypyrimidinyl) benzenesulfanilamide (4-OH-SDZ) and 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)aniline (An-SDZ) were estimated using a global optimization algorithm. A two-stage, one-rate sorption model combined with a first-order transformation model adequately described the batch data. Sorption of SDZ was nonlinear, time-dependent, and affected by pH, with a higher sorption capacity for the loamy sand. Transformation of SDZ into 4-OH-SDZ occurred only in the liquid phase, with half-life values of 1 month in the plow layers and 6 months in the subsoils. Under the exclusion of light, An-SDZ was formed in substantial amounts in the silty loam only, with liquid phase half-life values of 2 to 3 weeks. Despite the rather large parameter uncertainties, which may be reduced using additional information obtained from sequential solid phase extraction, the proposed method provides a framework to assess the fate of antibiotics in soils.
Environmental Restoration and Remediation -- Methods ; Soil -- Analysis ; Sulfadiazine -- Isolation & Purification ; Veterinary Drugs -- Isolation & Purification
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