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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 07 February 2017, Vol.51(3), pp.1785-1794
    Description: Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides are increasingly used as a crop protection measure to suppress insect pests on trees. However, senescent foliage falling from treated trees represents a rarely studied pathway through which neonicotinoids may enter nontarget environments, e.g., surface waters. To estimate risk posed by this pathway, neonicotinoid residues were analyzed in foliage from black alder trees treated with one of three neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, or acetamiprid) at five concentrations, each ranging from 0.0375-9.6 g active ingredient/cm trunk diameter at breast height (n = 3). Foliar residues measured at the time of leaf fall were used as input parameters for a model predicting imidacloprid water concentrations over a 100-m-long stream stretch as a consequence of remobilization from introduced foliage (input: 600 g foliage/m containing 80 μg imidacloprid/g). The water concentration (up to ∼250 ng/L) predicted by the model exceeded the recently proposed Maximum Permissible Concentration of 8.3 ng/L for ∼6.5 days. Moreover, dietary uptake was identified as an additional exposure route for aquatic organisms. The alternative pathway (i.e., introduction via leaf fall) and exposure route (i.e., dietary uptake) associated with the systemic nature of neonicotinoids should be accounted for during their registration process in order to safeguard ecosystem integrity.
    Keywords: Rivers ; Trees -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 16 May 2017, Vol.51(10), pp.5793-5802
    Description: Neonicotinoids are increasingly applied on trees as protection measure against insect pests. Consequently, neonicotinoids are inevitably transferred into aquatic environments either via spray drift or surface runoff or (due to neonicotinoids' systemic nature) via senescent leaves. There particularly leaf-shredding invertebrates may be exposed to neonicotinoids through both the water phase and the consumption of contaminated leaves. In 7 day bioassays (n = 30), we examined ecotoxicological differences between these two exposure scenarios for an amphipod and an insect nymph with their feeding rate as the response variable. Organisms either experienced waterborne neonicotinoid (i.e., imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and acetamiprid) exposure only or a combined exposure (waterborne and dietary) through both the consumption of contaminated leaves and neonicotinoids leaching from leaves into water. The amphipod (7 day ECs from 0.3 to 8.4 μg/L) was more sensitive than the insect nymph (7 day ECs from 7.0 to 19.4 μg/L). Moreover, for both species, concentration-response models derived from water concentrations indicated higher effects under the combined exposure. Together with the observed inability of shredders to avoid neonicotinoid-contaminated leaves, our results emphasize the relevance of dietary exposure (e.g., via leaves) for systemic insecticides. Thus, it would be prudent to consider dietary exposure during the registration of systemic insecticides to safeguard ecosystem integrity.
    Keywords: Insecticides -- Toxicity ; Nitro Compounds -- Toxicity ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Toxicity
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 15 August 2017, Vol.51(16), pp.9280-9287
    Description: Disturbance regimes determine communities' structure and functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been undertaken to understand interactions of press and pulse disturbances. In this context, leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates can be chronically exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluents (i.e., press disturbance) before experiencing pesticide exposure following agricultural runoff (i.e., pulse disturbance). It is assumed that wastewater pre-exposure alters animals' sensitivity to pesticides. To test this hypothesis, we exposed model-populations of the shredder Gammarus fossarum to wastewater at three field-relevant dilution levels (i.e., 0%, 50%, and 100%). After 2, 4, and 6 weeks, survival, leaf consumption, dry weight, and energy reserves were monitored. Additionally, animals were assessed for their sensitivity toward the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid using their feeding rate as response variable. Both wastewater treatments reduced gammarids' survival, leaf consumption, dry weight, and energy reserves. Moreover, both wastewater pre-exposure scenarios increased animals' sensitivity toward thiacloprid by up to 2.5 times compared to the control. Our results thus demonstrate that press disturbance as posed by wastewater pre-exposure can enhance susceptibility of key players in ecosystem functioning to further (pulse) disturbances. Therefore, applying mitigation measures such as advanced treatment technologies seems sensible to support functional integrity in the multiple-stress situation.
    Keywords: Amphipoda ; Pesticides -- Toxicity ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Toxicity
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 20 January 2015, Vol.49(2), pp.1173-81
    Description: The level of protection provided by the present environmental risk assessment (ERA) of fungicides in the European Union for fungi is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the structural and functional implications of five fungicides with different modes of action (azoxystrobin, carbendazim, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) individually and in mixture on communities of aquatic hyphomycetes. This is a polyphyletic group of fungi containing key drivers in the breakdown of leaf litter, governing both microbial leaf decomposition and the palatability of leaves for leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. All fungicides impaired leaf palatability to the leaf-shredder Gammarus fossarum and caused structural changes in fungal communities. In addition, all compounds except for quinoxyfen altered microbial leaf decomposition. Our results suggest that the European Union’s first-tier ERA provides sufficient protection for the tested fungicides, with the exception of tebuconazole and the mixture, while higher-tier ERA does not provide an adequate level of protection for fungicides in general. Therefore, our results show the need to incorporate aquatic fungi as well as their functions into ERA testing schemes to safeguard the integrity of aquatic ecosystems.
    Keywords: Ecosystem ; Fungi -- Drug Effects ; Fungicides, Industrial -- Analysis ; Plant Leaves -- Metabolism ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Technology, 2019, Vol.53(7), pp.3347-3365
    Description: Fungicides are indispensable to global food security and their use is forecasted to intensify. Fungicides can reach aquatic ecosystems and occur in surface water bodies in agricultural catchments throughout the entire growing season due to their frequent,...
    Keywords: Alterra - Environmental Risk Assessment ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Alterra - Environmental Risk Assessment ; Environmental Risk Assessment
    ISSN: 0013-936x
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 15205851
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