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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2008, Vol. 82(22), p.11167
    Description: The genomes of herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (CMV), are double-stranded DNA molecules maintained as episomes during infection. The viral DNA lacks histones when encapsidated in the virion. However, it has been found histone associated inside infected cells, implying unidentified chromatin assembly mechanisms. Our results indicate that components of the host cell nucleosome deposition machinery target intranuclear CMV DNA, resulting in stepwise viral-chromatin assembly. CMV genomes undergo limited histone association and nucleosome assembly as early as 30 min after infection via DNA replication-independent mechanisms. Low average viral-genome chromatinization is maintained throughout the early stages of infection. The late phase of infection is characterized by a striking increase in average histone occupancy coupled with the process of viral-DNA replication. While the initial chromatinization affected all analyzed parts of the CMV chromosome, a subset of viral genomic regions, including the major immediate-early promoter, proved to be largely resistant to replication-dependent histone deposition. Finally, our results predict the likely requirement for an unanticipated chromatin disassembly process that enables packaging of histone-free DNA into progeny capsids.
    Keywords: Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly ; Cytomegalovirus -- Physiology ; DNA, Viral -- Metabolism ; Histones -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, September 2012, Vol.86(18), pp.9817-27
    Description: In the nuclei of permissive cells, human cytomegalovirus genomes form nucleosomal structures initially resembling heterochromatin but gradually switching to a euchromatin-like state. This switch is characterized by a decrease in histone H3 K9 methylation and a marked increase in H3 tail acetylation and H3 K4 methylation across the viral genome. We used ganciclovir and a mutant virus encoding a reversibly destabilized DNA polymerase to examine the impact of DNA replication on histone modification dynamics at the viral chromatin. The changes in H3 tail acetylation and H3 K9 methylation proceeded in a DNA replication-independent fashion. In contrast, the increase in H3 K4 methylation proved to depend widely on viral DNA synthesis. Consistently, labeling of nascent DNA using "click chemistry" revealed preferential incorporation of methylated H3 K4 into viral (but not cellular) chromatin during or following DNA replication. This study demonstrates largely selective epigenetic tagging of postreplicative human cytomegalovirus chromatin.
    Keywords: Chromatin -- Genetics ; Cytomegalovirus -- Genetics ; Histones -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, October 2013, Vol.87(19), pp.10763-76
    Description: In the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway, binding of agonist to receptors activates Janus kinases that phosphorylate cytoplasmic STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (Y705). Phosphorylated STAT3 dimers accumulate in the nucleus and drive the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection rapidly promotes nuclear localization of STAT3 in the absence of robust phosphorylation at Y705. Furthermore, infection disrupts interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of a subset of IL-6-induced STAT3-regulated genes, including SOCS3. We show that the HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein associates with STAT3 and is necessary to localize STAT3 to the nucleus during infection. Furthermore, expression of IE1 is sufficient to disrupt IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, binding of STAT3 to the SOCS3 promoter, and SOCS3 gene expression. Finally, inhibition of STAT3 nuclear localization or STAT3 expression during infection is linked to diminished HCMV genome replication. Viral gene expression is also disrupted, with the greatest impact seen following viral DNA synthesis. Our study identifies IE1 as a new regulator of STAT3 intracellular localization and IL-6 signaling and points to an unanticipated role of STAT3 in HCMV infection.
    Keywords: Cell Nucleus -- Metabolism ; Cytomegalovirus -- Physiology ; Cytomegalovirus Infections -- Virology ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Metabolism ; Interleukin-6 -- Metabolism ; Stat3 Transcription Factor -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 4
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2009, Vol. 83(24), p.12854
    Description: Our previous work has shown that efficient evasion from type I interferon responses by human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) requires expression of the 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein. It has been suggested that IE1 inhibits interferon signaling through intranuclear sequestration of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) protein. Here we show that physical association and subnuclear colocalization of IE1 and STAT2 depend on short acidic and serine/proline-rich low-complexity motifs in the carboxy-terminal region of the 491-amino-acid viral polypeptide. These motifs compose an essential core (amino acids 373 to 420) and an adjacent ancillary site (amino acids 421 to 445) for STAT2 interaction that are predicted to form part of a natively unstructured domain. The presence of presumably "disordered" carboxy-terminal domains enriched in low-complexity motifs is evolutionarily highly conserved across all examined mammalian IE1 orthologs, and the murine cytomegalovirus IE1 protein appears to interact with STAT2 just like the human counterpart. A recombinant hCMV specifically mutated in the IE1 core STAT2 binding site displays hypersensitivity to alpha interferon, delayed early viral protein accumulation, and attenuated growth in fibroblasts. However, replication of this mutant virus is specifically restored by knockdown of STAT2 expression. Interestingly, complex formation with STAT2 proved to be entirely separable from disruption of nuclear domain 10 (ND10), another key activity of IE1. Finally, our results demonstrate that IE1 counteracts the antiviral interferon response and promotes viral replication by at least two distinct mechanisms, one depending on sequestration of STAT2 and the other one likely involving ND10 interaction.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 5
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2006, Vol. 80(4), p.1773
    Description: Mammalian alphaherpesviruses normally establish latent infections in ganglia of the peripheral nervous system in their natural hosts. Occasionally, however, these viruses spread to the central nervous system (CNS), where they cause damaging, often fatal, infections. Attenuated alphaherpesvirus derivatives have been used extensively as neuronal circuit tracers in a variety of animal models. Their circuit-specific spread provides a unique paradigm to study the local and global CNS response to infection. Thus, we systematically analyzed the host gene expression profile after acute pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection of the CNS using Affymetrix GeneChip technology. Rats were injected intraocularly with one of three selected virulent and attenuated PRV strains. Relative levels of cellular transcripts were quantified from hypothalamic and cerebellar tissues at various times postinfection. The number of cellular genes responding to infection correlated with the extent of virus dissemination and relative virulence of the PRV strains. A total of 245 out of 8,799 probe sets, corresponding to 182 unique cellular genes, displayed increased expression ranging from 2- to more than 100-fold higher than in uninfected tissue. Over 60% thereof were categorized as immune, proinflammatory, and other cellular defense genes. Additionally, a large fraction of infection-induced transcripts represented cellular stress responses, including glucocorticoid- and redox-related pathways. This is the first comprehensive in vivo analysis of the global transcriptional response of the mammalian CNS to acute alphaherpesvirus infection. The differentially regulated genes reported here are likely to include potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for viral encephalitides and other neurodegenerative or neuroinflammatory diseases.
    Keywords: Central Nervous System ; Latent Infection ; Hypothalamus ; Brain ; Cerebellum ; Animal Models ; Transcription ; Stress ; Glucocorticoids ; Inflammation ; Gene Expression ; Pseudorabies ; Virulence ; Tracers ; Peripheral Nervous System ; Ganglia ; Pseudorabies Virus ; Alphaherpesvirus ; Effects on Host Cell Metabolism ; Gene Regulation;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, 15 October 2016, Vol.90(20), pp.9543-55
    Description: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of commonly fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A hallmark of all herpesviruses is their biphasic life cycle-viral latency and the productive lytic cycle-and it is well established that reactivation of the KSHV lytic cycle is associated with KS pathogenesis. Therefore, a thorough appreciation of the mechanisms that govern reactivation is required to better understand disease progression. The viral protein replication and transcription activator (RTA) is the KSHV lytic switch protein due to its ability to drive the expression of various lytic genes, leading to reactivation of the entire lytic cycle. While the mechanisms for activating lytic gene expression have received much attention, how RTA impacts cellular function is less well understood. To address this, we developed a cell line with doxycycline-inducible RTA expression and applied stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. Using this methodology, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain containing 3B [ARID3B]) whose expression was enhanced by RTA and that relocalized to replication compartments upon lytic reactivation. We also show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or overexpression of ARID3B led to an enhancement or inhibition of lytic reactivation, respectively. Furthermore, DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ARID3B specifically interacts with A/T-rich elements in the KSHV origin of lytic replication (oriLyt), and this was dependent on lytic cycle reactivation. Therefore, we have identified a novel cellular protein whose expression is enhanced by KSHV RTA with the ability to inhibit KSHV reactivation. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Herpesviruses are able to establish a latent infection, in which they escape immune detection by restricting viral gene expression. Importantly, however, reactivation of productive viral replication (the lytic cycle) is necessary for the pathogenesis of KS. Therefore, it is important that we comprehensively understand the mechanisms that govern lytic reactivation, to better understand disease progression. In this study, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain protein 3B [ARID3B]) that we show is able to temper lytic reactivation. We showed that the master lytic switch protein, RTA, enhanced ARID3B levels, which then interacted with viral DNA in a lytic cycle-dependent manner. Therefore, we have added a new factor to the list of cellular proteins that regulate the KSHV lytic cycle, which has implications for our understanding of KSHV biology.
    Keywords: DNA-Binding Proteins -- Genetics ; Herpesvirus 8, Human -- Genetics ; Sarcoma, Kaposi -- Virology ; Viral Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, January 2014, Vol.88(2), pp.1228-48
    Description: The 72-kDa immediate early 1 (IE1) protein encoded by human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a nuclearly localized promiscuous regulator of viral and cellular transcription. IE1 has long been known to associate with host mitotic chromatin, yet the mechanisms underlying this interaction have not been specified. In this study, we identify the cellular chromosome receptor for IE1. We demonstrate that the viral protein targets human nucleosomes by directly binding to core histones in a nucleic acid-independent manner. IE1 exhibits two separable histone-interacting regions with differential binding specificities for H2A-H2B and H3-H4. The H2A-H2B binding region was mapped to an evolutionarily conserved 10-amino-acid motif within the chromatin-tethering domain (CTD) of IE1. Results from experimental approaches combined with molecular modeling indicate that the IE1 CTD adopts a β-hairpin structure, docking with the acidic pocket formed by H2A-H2B on the nucleosome surface. IE1 binds to the acidic pocket in a way similar to that of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Consequently, the IE1 and LANA CTDs compete for binding to nucleosome cores and chromatin. Our work elucidates in detail how a key viral regulator is anchored to human chromosomes and identifies the nucleosomal acidic pocket as a joint target of proteins from distantly related viruses. Based on the striking similarities between the IE1 and LANA CTDs and the fact that nucleosome targeting by IE1 is dispensable for productive replication even in "clinical" strains of hCMV, we speculate that the two viral proteins may serve analogous functions during latency of their respective viruses.
    Keywords: Chromosomes, Human -- Virology ; Cytomegalovirus -- Metabolism ; Cytomegalovirus Infections -- Virology ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Metabolism ; Nucleosomes -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, 01 September 2018, Vol.92(17)
    Description: The mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental damage caused by virus infections remain poorly defined. Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the leading cause of fetal brain development disorders. Previous work has linked HCMV infection to perturbations of neural cell fate, including premature differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we show that HCMV infection of NPCs results in loss of the SOX2 protein, a key pluripotency-associated transcription factor. SOX2 depletion maps to the HCMV major immediate early (IE) transcription unit and is individually mediated by the IE1 and IE2 proteins. IE1 causes SOX2 downregulation by promoting the nuclear accumulation and inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3, a transcriptional activator of SOX2 expression. Deranged signaling resulting in depletion of a critical stem cell protein is an unanticipated mechanism by which the viral major IE proteins may contribute to brain development disorders caused by congenital HCMV infection. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are a leading cause of brain damage, hearing loss, and other neurological disabilities in children. We report that the HCMV proteins known as IE1 and IE2 target expression of human SOX2, a central pluripotency-associated transcription factor that governs neural progenitor cell (NPC) fate and is required for normal brain development. Both during HCMV infection and when expressed alone, IE1 causes the loss of SOX2 from NPCs. IE1 mediates SOX2 depletion by targeting STAT3, a critical upstream regulator of SOX2 expression. Our findings reveal an unanticipated mechanism by which a common virus may cause damage to the developing nervous system and suggest novel targets for medical intervention.
    Keywords: Hcmv ; Ie1 ; Sox2 ; Stat3 ; Neural Progenitor Cells ; Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Cytomegalovirus -- Growth & Development ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Metabolism ; Neural Stem Cells -- Pathology ; Soxb1 Transcription Factors -- Metabolism ; Stat3 Transcription Factor -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 9
    In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2006, Vol. 50(12), p.3977
    Description: Biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) are the major cause of failure of indwelling medical devices and are predominantly caused by staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis. We investigated the in vitro microbicidal activity of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide bactericidal peptide 2 (BP2) and its efficacy in a murine model of S. epidermidis BAI. BP2 showed potent microbicidal activity at micromolar concentrations against a broad spectrum of microorganisms, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The staphylocidal activity of BP2 was not affected by physiological salt concentrations and was only slightly affected by the presence of human plasma. In the BAI model, injection of BP2 (5 mg/kg of body weight) 1 h after challenge with S. epidermidis resulted in an 80% reduction in the number of culture-positive implants and a 100-fold reduction in survival of S. epidermidis in peri-implant tissue at 24 h postchallenge. When BP2 was injected along implants 3 h prior to bacterial challenge, the median numbers of CFU cultured from biomaterial implants and peri-implant tissue were reduced by 85% and 90%, respectively. In conclusion, BP2 has potent, broad-spectrum in vitro microbicidal activity and showed potent in vivo activity in a murine model of S. epidermidis biomaterial-associated infection.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology;
    ISSN: 0066-4804
    ISSN: 00664804
    E-ISSN: 10986596
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