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  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)  (3)
  • Forests  (3)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 February 2017, Vol.8(2), p.37
    Description: More intensive removal of woody biomass for the bio-economy will disrupt litter and succession cycles. Especially at risk is the retention of fine and coarse woody debris (FWD and CWD), crucial factors in forest biodiversity and nutrient cycling. However, to what extent CWD affects soil functioning remains unknown, and is seldom considered. From 32 paired test–reference points in eight Fagus sylvatica (L.) stands throughout Southwest Germany, CWD significantly increased soil C/N ratios, base saturation, and possibly pH. CWD-induced changes in soil porosity, available water capacity, and total organic carbon depended on site and CWD characteristics. As such, CWD can be viewed as a “pedogenic hot-spot” of concentrated biogeochemical and -physical processes with outsized effects on soil functioning and development. CWD management for soil functioning should consider site and tree species specific volume thresholds, timed rotations, and spatial densities, but appropriate implementation requires further research to define best management practices. If successful, overall forest resilience as well as soil functioning and productivity can be improved.
    Keywords: Soil Management ; Silviculture ; Disturbances ; Fagus Sylvatica ; Biodiversity ; Bioeconomy ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 September 2017, Vol.8(10), p.358
    Description: Forest harvesting removes and redistributes nutrients through felling and forwarding. Substantial quantities of nutrients can accumulate in brash mats on permanent skid trails, but their availability and uptake after multiple thinnings on soils susceptible to leaching are unknown. In this study, we modeled the deposition of base cations and phosphorus on a permanent skid trail after five thinnings of a Picea abies (L.) Karst. stand, and measured the resulting nutrient stocks in both the forest floor and mineral soil. An estimated 35%, 44%, 41%, and 61% of harvested Ca, K, Mg, and P, respectively, were redistributed to the skid trail. Of those deposited stocks, 32–65% of nutrients remained in decomposed brash material on the skid trail. Mineral soil stocks for Ca, K, and P were significantly higher in the skid trail than in the stand, which included minor increases in bioavailable pools. Skid trail root densities were not lower than the stand while bulk densities were only partially higher. Both would not limit nutrient uptake. There were no significant relations between needle nutrient concentrations and distance to the skid trail. Altogether, these results indicate that nutrient uptake from the skid trail was minimal despite their accumulation, chemical availability, and physical accessibility. This suggests that other factors such as liming and frequent thinning disturbances can repress uptake of available nutrients on skid trails.
    Keywords: Soil Management ; Picea Abies ; Brash Mats ; Needle Nutrition ; Whole-Tree Harvesting ; Liming ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 August 2019, Vol.10(9), p.726
    Description: The compaction of forest soils can deteriorate soil aeration, leading to decreased CH4 uptake and increased N2O efflux. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa) may accelerate soil structure regeneration as it can grow roots under anaerobic soil conditions. However, symbiotic nitrogen fixation by alder can have undesirable side-effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. In this study, we evaluated the possible trade-off between alder-mediated structure recovery and GHG emissions. We compared two directly adjacent 15-year old beech (Fagus sylvatica) and alder stands (loamy texture, pH 5−6), including old planted skid trails. The last soil trafficking on the skid trails took place in 1999. GHG fluxes were measured over one year. Undisturbed plots with beech had a moderately higher total porosity and were lower in soil moisture and soil organic carbon than undisturbed alder plots. No differences in mineral nitrogen were found. N2O emissions in the undisturbed beech stand were 0.4 kg ha−1 y−1 and 3.1 kg ha−1 y−1 in the undisturbed alder stand. CH4 uptake was 4.0 kg ha−1 y−1 and 1.5 kg ha−1 y−1 under beech and alder, respectively. On the beech planted skid trail, topsoil compaction was still evident by reduced macro porosity and soil aeration; on the alder planted skid trail, soil structure of the uppermost soil layer was completely recovered. Skid trail N2O fluxes under beech were five times higher and CH4 oxidation was 0.6 times lower compared to the adjacent undisturbed beech stand. Under alder, no skid-trail-effects on GHG fluxes were evident. Multiple regression modelling revealed that N2O and CH4 emissions were mainly governed by soil aeration and soil temperature. Compared to beech, alder considerably increased net fluxes of GHG on undisturbed plots. However, for skid trails we suggest that black alder improves soil structure without deterioration of the stand's greenhouse gas balance, when planted only on the compacted areas.
    Keywords: Soil Compaction ; Skid Trails ; Black Alder ; Alnus Glutinosa ; Greenhouse Gas Fluxes ; Soil Structure Recovery ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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